Checking – Part 2


Key Performance Factors


1  of these notes defined checking (the measurement of something and a comparison of the result of the measurement with a standard), listed five stages in checking, and discussed the two major processes in checking (measuring and evaluating).

2 The notes listed the four inevitable activities involved in all checking and discussed some important ideas in measurement.

3 The Part 1 notes then discussed why check something, when to check, who should check, and who should receive the check.

4 These notes (Part Two) discuss what to check. Then the evaluation part of the checking process and cover purpose, the need for Subordinates to accept, and when they discuss – who should know of the check first and checking to controlling.

What to Check

Check a Plan and/or a Result

5 People can check on (a) a plan to achieve an (end) objective and/or (b) the results achieved with respect to an end objective or any stage along the way.

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Role-Playing Exercise – The Resigned Secretary

The Boss

1 Your Subordinate has come to you with a problem.

2 At the beginning of the interview you must assume you do not know why the Subordinate has come to see you or just what has happened – until you hear about the situation. This approach will equal what would happen in real life.

3 Your Subordinate will tell you that a young secretary, Mary Green, (who has been in the Company six months) has resigned.

4 You know little about her performance except that she was not very satisfactory at the beginning of her engagement. You did notice the other day that she has had her hair dyed and this change has improved her appear­ance.

5 You will want to listen to the details of the case but you will insist on Completed Staff Work.

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What should Executives tell a Personnel Consultant about People they send for a Personnel Appraisal


1 Tom, the General Manager, had to appoint a new Factory Manager. Harry (Manufacturing Manager) submitted three people for the position with a recommendation that Mr Able get the appointment. However he had no great confidence that Mr Able would do a better job than Mr Baker or Mr Charles.

2 Harry suggested that they consider using a Consultant to assess the three people. He said it would give them additional evidence and might help them make a better appointment.

3 However neither Executive had had much experience with Consultants or how they went about appraising people.

4 Almost together they asked the question: “What do Consultants do when they do an appraisal of personnel?”

The Activities involved in Personnel Appraisal

5 The activities in a Personnel Appraisal vary according to the Organisation and Appraiser who carries it out. Continue reading

Some Ideas to help Managers achieve an appropriate Direction andStrength of Motivation in particular Subordinates


1 The following notes provide some preliminary ideas. They do not represent a finished product. They arise from a brief discussion in a Manager’s discussion group.

Approach A – Principles of Behaviour

2 One approach to train Managers to know more about influencing their Subordinates better would involve teaching them various things to do and not to do. The following lists some ideas.

3. Presumably a Training Course would aim to arrange for Course Members to discuss the ideas so that they understand them and want to add them or subtract them from their usual behaviour.

Some Principles of Behaviour

4 Don’t “cry wolf”.

5 Don’t ask someone to finish something by a certain time for you and then do not work on it – until some hours or days later.

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Completed Staff Work



1 In many Organisations, Subordinates and/or Staff Advisors bring their Managers a problem and sometimes even possible solutions, but (unless trained or unusual) usually they do no more. In effect, they “dump’ the problem on the Manager’s lap.

2 These notes discuss Completed Staff Work (CSW) – a technique that aims to reduce the number of times people dump problems on others. They explain a meaning for CSW (Completed Staff Work), list four stages, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the approach to both Managers and Subordinates.

3 The notes point out that CSW (Completed Staff Work) applies to that area of a person’s job where the person does NOT have the right to make decisions and implement them.

4 The notes also point out that people can (a) practise oral as well as written CSW and (b) always make recommendations, but with varying degrees of confidence. Recommenders often need to make assumptions; if so, they should include them with their recommendations.

A Definition of Completed Staff Work (CSW)

5 Completed Staff Work – the presentation by one person[1] (a) to another person or a group (b) of a problem and/or opportunity, plus a recommendation regarding the problem and/or opportunity which the receiver (person or group) (b) can accept or reject.

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When should a Manager/Subordinate use Completed Staff Work?

The following lists a series of factors which should help a person decide whether to use CSW (Completed Staff Work)

Each factor has a scale arranged so that the right side suggests the Organisation should achieve CSW between Manager and Subordinate while the left side suggests that an Organisation should not use CSW

. Example.In the first factor (Time Available to ) the shorter the time to make the decision the less suitable will CSW prove.




The Shorter-

1 the time available to make the decision The Longer

The Longer-

2   the time before the Subordinate can produce a Recommendation The Shorter

The Fewer-

3  the number of successful recommendations  made by the Subordinate in recent times The Greater

The Smaller-

4   the of the problem (i.e. the cost to the Organisation of failure and the benefits gained from success) The Greater

The Smaller-

5   the confidence the Subordinate has that he/she can produce a recommendation that – will solve the problem The Greater

The Smaller-

6 the confidence the Manager has that the Subordinate can produce a recommendation that will solve the problem. The Greater

The Shorter-

7   the time available to implement a solution The Longer

The Smaller-

8  the Subordinate’s ability to gain access to, and/or have available, appropriate information The Greater

The Greater

9 the confidentiality of information required to produced a recommendation. The Smaller

The Smaller-

10 the benefits available to the Subordinate from working on the problem. (The potential of the problem to prove useful in training the Subordinate.) The Greater

The Lower -

11 the probability of the same or a similar problem re-occurring2

The Smaller-

12 the involvement by the Subordinate in implementing the recommended solution The Greater

The Smaller-

13 the desire to involve the Subordinate in wider aspects of the Organisation’s operations The Greater

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How should Managers introduce Completed Staff Work?


1 Executives who believe they and/or their Organisation should use Completed Staff Work (CSW) need to consider – howthey should introduce it – and into which part(s) of the Organisation.

2 Sometimes the where to introduce determines the how to introduce.

Individuals - As  of CSW

3 People who want to start giving CSW have a simple task. They just decide that whenever they write or talk to their Managers about a problem they will include a recommendation. Receivers of a Recommendation can include anyone else – person or group (e.g. a Committee)

A Possible Difficulty: A Challenge to the

4 Unfortunately some Managers may interpret a recommendation as the  trying to “tell the Boss what to do”. If so, Subordinates need to try to educate their Managers in the advantages of CSW to the Manager.[1]

Individuals - As Requesters of CSW from Subordinates

5 Managers who want to introduce CSW can do so independently of other Executives. These Managers only have to gain sufficient co-operation from their Subordinates that the Subordinates will remember to offer a recommendation (not just communicate a problem).

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Exercise – What constitutes CSW (Form A)

1 Please study carefully the following descriptions of behaviour by a person (a Subordinate)

2 Do not assume that the Subordinate has done anything unless the written description states it specifically.

3 Classify each piece of behaviour into one, and one only, of the following classes:

(a) The Subordinate has carried out CSW (Completed Staff Work) Use a “C” to indicate this class.

(b) The Subordinate has not carried out CSW. Use a “NC’ to indicate this class.

4 Try to classify each piece of behaviour into either “C” or “NC”.

5 If you feel unsure or very unsure add a “? “after your “C” or “NC”. If you feel confident of your classification add a tick after your “C” or “NC”,

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Exercise – Role Playing – Manager and Subordinate – re CSW

Role – A Manager

1 You hold a position where you have some Subordinates reporting to you.

2 Recently you went to a course on Completed Staff Work and you believe the idea has a lot of merit.

3 At the course you decided you would introduce it to your Subordinates at the earliest opportunity.

4 A Subordinate comes into your office. The Subordinate states “Problem X” arose yesterday. The Subordinate wants to know what to do about it.

5 The Subordinate has worked in your Section for about six months.

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The Dfference between Operating and Managing

The Difficulty of becoming an effective Manager

1 People who move from doing a job by themselves (Operating) to a job where they have charge of a group of people (Managing) face a very important change. Usually few people give enough thought to the change. Further, (Senior) Managers usually provide insufficient training (often none at all) to help people move from operating to a job which involves managing.

2 Examples An Operator or a Craftsman becomes a Supervisor. An Advisor (a Staff Person) who gives advice on a particular topic to someone else becomes a person who now gives orders to other people.                                                                                        

 New Supervisors usually need help to learn to supervise

3 People just promoted to a supervisory position, often find that they need a new set of values and a different approach to their work problems. Often new Supervisors fail simply because they receive no help to understand that they face an entirely-different work situation.

4 Some people can analyse the change themselves and do so – sometimes after many years have elapsed. Others remain ignorant of the changes that they should make in their work attitudes and the way they deal with their problems. Some newly-promoted Supervisors or Managers fail in their new job whereas some appropriate training/coaching would have helped them do a much better job of managing.

Managers should concern themselves with the work of other People

5 Operators do not give orders to anybody. They have to try to achieve objectives by themselves. They set objectives for themselves. Usually these objectives lie within the broad objectives provided by their Managers. Operators only have to do their own job. Other measure the job success of Operators by the quantity and quality of the work produced.

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