How much Time should Organisations spend on finding Training Needs

Introduction

1 People have different views on how much an Organisation should spend on find their Training Needs. Different Organisations take different actions on this matter.

2 The different assumptions which people hold explain some of this varia­tion.

3 These notes list some important assumptions. They aim to encourage Readers to examine these assumptions, identify their own, and estimate the degree to which evidence supports the different assumptions. This process should help Readers decide how much their Organisation should spend on finding Training Needs.

4 Readers should note that these notes refer only to Training Needs related to Managing. They do not refer to Training Needs related to tech­nical knowledge of the processes and products of a particular Organisation.

Assumptions About Managers

5 Few Managers have much useful information to offer when asked to state some specific training needs of their Subordinates.

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Introduction to Sales Management

1 Sales Representatives who become Sales Managers soon find necessary to re-focus their thinking in some ways. This change occurs particularly when Sales Management must enlarge its scope, knowledge and understanding as it has to meet “the total marketing concept” .[1]

2 New Sales Managers have new objectives to achieve as the following list shows. They should:

(a) Face business Facts in a hardheaded, realistic manner.

(b) Establish and maintain the organisation and procedures collect/analyse, and interpret the Facts.

(c) Develop an effective plan of action based on the Facts.

3 Many Sales Representatives do not find it easy to face business facts realistically. In selling, many have learned to think and to their way around adverse facts raised by unreceptive Prospects. Th have also learned to brush aside the unhappy circumstance of a lost sale and to approach each new Prospect with enthusiasm.

4 Thus, good Representatives generally become good forgetters of unpleasant facts and learn not to let negative experiences influence their thinking too greatly. They learn to look at the world through some special Sales-Representative’s glasses which eliminate the negative and accentuate the positive.

5 Thus, when they reach higher management levels and report containing negative information come across their desks, the Sale Representatives who have become Sales Managers instinctively close their mind to this information. They search for other figures that will prove more satisfying.

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Topic Objectives

Introduction

1 Trainers should try to set specific objectives for each session in a course. Without specific objectives, it proves difficult to achieve a useful evaluation; i.e. whether the training has achieved something specif­ic. Useful evaluations will help Trainers to find ways of improving their training.

2 While it rates a difficult to set specific objectives, the effort to do so will help to increase the number of specific objectives actually set.

How Topic Objectives help various People

3 Topic objectives can help trainers to

(a) plan a particular training session

(b) identify which topics a Client* wishes to include in a course and then select objectives appropriate for (0 the needs of the Trainees and/or (ii) the time available.

4   Topic objectives can help Clients to decide the parts to have in a

Formal Training Course.

Actual Topic Objectives Available

5 Lists of objectives should help -

(a) Clients – to select suitable training objectives

(b) Other Trainers – in their planning of a course for relevant topics

(c) All Trainers – to check more often and systematically – (a) whether they have appropriate objectives and (b) the extent they have achieved them.

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How much Time should Organisations spend on finding Training Needs A

Introduction

1 People have different views on how much an Organisation should spend on find their Training Needs. Different Organisations take different actions on this matter.

2 The different assumptions which people hold explain some of this varia­tion.

3 These notes list some important assumptions. They aim to encourage Readers to examine these assumptions, identify their own, and estimate the degree to which evidence supports the different assumptions. This process should help Readers decide how much their Organisation should spend on finding Training Needs.

4 Readers should note that these notes refer only to Training Needs related to Managing. They do not refer to Training Needs related to tech­nical knowledge of the processes and products of a particular Organisation.

Assumptions about Managers

5 Few Managers have much useful information to offer when asked to state some specific training needs of their Subordinates

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Definitions – An Introduction

Introduction

1 These notes aim to help people understand why these posts emphasise definitions. They explain the meaning of a definition, the advantages if one word means only one thing, and the dangers involved in trying to define a good something. They stress the advantages of “tight” defini­tions and warn that many Writers use “loose” definitions. They discuss the dangers of expecting to use an ordinary English dictionary to find the meaning of technical terms and point out that learning a definition off by heart does not necessarily mean that the learner does not under­stand the definition. Knowing and understanding realistic definitions will help to achieve successful communications.

Advantages of Definitions – particularly where each Word only means one Thing

2 These notes emphasis definitions to help ensure that both Readers and the Writer have a clear understanding of the topic.

3 People in any field communicate more clearly and easily if they have words which describe things and ideas and each word only refers to one thing or idea.  Usually the notes give important words one specific meaning only.

4 Many (perhaps all) Social Sciences have no universally-accepted set of definitions for the ideas used in their field. Hence disagreements and misunderstandings occur because different Writers use different terms to cover the same ideas. Many Management Writers do not define the terms they use; even when they do, they often use quite “loose” (explained below) definitions.

5 Many advantages exist in having one term to stand for one specific idea where the term has world-wide acceptance. If people who discuss research, and think about Management had a universally-accepted set of definitions they would overcome much time wasting caused by unclear communications. Continue reading

Definition – Empowerment

1 Empowerment -  the extent to which one or more people believe they have (a) the right to do things and/or (b) knowledge.

“extent”

2 The word “extent” shows that varying degrees of empowerment exist.

One or More People

3 Empowerment relates to people.

4 Individual people can have different amounts of empowerment. Thus a higher-level Manager can make some arrangements which aim to empower people and it will have a different effect on different people. The arrangement may increase, decrease, or have no effect on the amount of power a given person has.

5 It also follows that a Manager can take action which aims to reduce  power – with a different effect on different people.

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Definition – Leading

1 Leading – A continuous process of setting objectives and trying to achieve them through the efforts of other People

2 This definition of leading defines any leading, not necessarily good (successful) leading.

3 A definition of good leading would delete “trying to achieve” and substitute “achieving”. Thus good leading means – a continuous process  of setting objectives and achieving them through the efforts of other people.

4 The above two definitions do not state that the objectives have to rate as good or wise.   good leading can involve getting people to achieve bad objectives.

A Difference between Leading and Managing

5 The definition of good leading almost equals the  defi­nition of managing used in these posts ; i.e. managing: a continuous process of determining objectives and trying to achieve them through the efforts of other peo­ple.

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Definition – Management by Objectives

1 Management by objectives:- Activities which emphasise‑

(a) the careful setting of specific objectives for each position in the organisation – within the context of the position’s broad (continuous’) objectives;

(b) objective setting – by the holder of the position initially and later on by both the position holder and immediate manager; and

(c) regular review discussions between these two people on the evaluation of progress towards, and final achievement of, previ­ously-agreed-upon objectives.

Notes

“Carrying out the Activity of Managing in a way which Emphasises”

2 This phrase points out that management by objectives rates a part of managing but it uses a particular approach as described in the rest of the definition.

“Setting of Specific Objectives”

3 A “Specific” objective provides a clear aiming point which does not rely on personal opinion as to its meaning or place on a scale within the context of the position’s broad (continuous) objectives.’

4 A “continuous” objective refers to an activity involving a classification scale. No end point exists for the objective, i.e. it goes on continuously e.g. Market the Company’s Products.

5  Management by Objectives must involve setting of specific objectives – non-specific objectives will not do.

For further information, see the  notes:

“Both the Position Holder and Immediate Manager”

6  Management by Objectives involves two people agreeing on the specific objectives.

“Regular Review Discussions between these two people on the evaluation of progress towards, and final achievement of, previously-agreed Objec­tives”

7 MBO will not exist unless both Manager and Subordinate discuss the results of the Subordinate’s attempts to achieve the objective both during attempts to achieve and the final achievement or non-achievement.

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Definition – Management Development

1 One useful way of approaching a definition of management development would involve using the term “manager developing”. Then manager devel­oping could mean: the process which someone tries to carry out in or­der to achieve “manager development” or “management development”.

2 This approach leads to the following definition of “manager develop­ing”.

3 Manager developing – any activity which aims to help a manager (=supervisor) or a potential manager -

(a) determine wise objectives, and

(b) (try to) achieve them -

(i) through his/her own efforts and/or

(ii) through the efforts of other people and

(iii) using less resources than

(1) he/she did in the past

(2) others did in the past

Notes

The Number of Activities included in the Definition

4 Probably this definition includes too many activities to suit the views of some people. However these people can identify the specific activities they wish to exclude from the activities in the definition above.

“Aims to Help”

5 The definition includes the aspect of “aims to help” on the basis that some activity will not achieve its aim.

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Definition – Managing

1 Managing – a continuous process of: determining objectives and try­ing to achieve them through the efforts of other people.

Notes

Managing versus Management

2 The definition refers to Managing not Management. Users of the term “Management” usually use the word to mean: (a) an activity or (b) a group of people

3 It will reduce communication problems if people use different words for the two meanings. This definition suggests using managing for the activity and management for the group of people.

A Continuous Process

4 The phrase “a continuous process” means that the activity goes on and on. However it does not aim to imply that managing must go on every minute of the day. People who manage usually stop managing at various times and try to achieve objectives solely through their own efforts i.e. they operate. (See paragraph 9.)

5 The phrase “continuous process” implies an activity which must ad­just all the time in an attempt to cope with the changing situation found in the Organisation and the outside environment in which it oper­ates.

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