1 Organisations divide up their work (their objectives). They group together various pieces of work (objectives) and call them positions (= jobs). They give a position to a person (a Position Holder).
2 Thus, each Position Holder (PH) does different pieces of work i.e. tries to achieve different objectives.
3 Assumption. Some work (objectives) which a Position Holder does (or should do) rates as more important than other work.
4 In other words, if a PH (Position Holder) does not do some work well (achieve some wise objectives), it will mean that their Section or Division or the Organisation cannot perform well.
Key Performance Factors
5 These notes use the term “Key Performance Factors”* to describe such important pieces of work (= important areas of a position).
1 Over the years different Writers have identified various factors for use in evaluating people. Often a particular approach has so emphasised one factor that it encourages some people to discard other factors.
2 Example. In introducing Management by Objectives, many Writers felt that Managers should evaluate the performance of people on the basis of their results. Thus they encouraged Managers and Subordinates to agree on objectives for the Subordinates to achieve. Then they aimed to find out whether the Subordinates actually achieved those objectives. Some Writers so emphasised the setting of quantitative end-results objectives that Managers tended to discard the idea of evaluating (a) the traits of other people and/or (b) the intervening activities which aimed to achieve the end results.
Three Major Factors in Evaluating People
3 These notes specify three main evaluation factors: (a) the personality of a person, (b) the end results which the person aims to achieve and/or the person’s Manager wishes the person to achieve, and (c) the activities which aim to help achieve particular end results.
4 Each of these factors (Personality, Intervening Activities, and End Results) rates as important. However different situations call for a different emphasis on the three factors.
5 Specific situations exist which help prove this point. They show that one or more of the three factors will not prove suitable for evaluating a person in relation to a particular objective. The following sections discuss these situations.
1 Some Executives ask: “Can you help us find an Engineer?” or “Have you got any Accountants on your books?”
2 One approach to answering would give them an overall view of the way Personnel Organisations (e.g. Personnel Consultants, Employment Agencies) operate.
3 This information should help them decide (a) what help (if any) they should seek from those Organisations and (b) which type of Organisation will help them best.
4 These notes concentrate on the last question and provide Executives with information about:
(a) Personnel Organisations and how they operate.
(b) How one Consultant operates.
4 However we do not have a detailed knowledge of how each particular Personnel Organisation operates and some people might disagree with our opinions.
The First Decision for Organisation Executives
Select from Inside the Organisation
5 Once an Organisation decides it has a job vacancy it should decide whether to fill the vacancy from inside its Organisation or from outside -or consider both sources. Continue reading
1. Managers should arrange for and/or carry out systematic training of their personnel to improve their performance. However many managers have little experience in this area. Thus when they want to develop and conduct a training program they often make errors because they lack experience and knowledge.
2. To develop a systematic training program, managers should aim to achieve the following objectives
(a) plan formal training courses for the organisation
(b) decide the objectives such courses I aim to achieve
(c) decide who should attend such courses
(d) achieve integration between the courses and on-the-job behaviour.
3. These notes should help managers to achieve the above objectives and explain some of the difficulties involved in achieving them.
4. They do not aim to cover all aspects of this topic. Example, they do not discuss the following important objectives. Decide where to hold the course stop. Decide when to hold. Decide how to conduct. Decide who should conduct it..
A broad picture of some of the Objectives involved in a Training Program.
5. The diagram following shows in broad outline some of the objectives involved in a formal training program.
1 These notes define decision making and distinguish objective setting as a special class of decision making. They discuss some important characteristics of decisions and the time to spend on, and techniques of, decision making. They stress the importance of the strategic factor and consider who should make the decision as well as the actions to take after making a decision.
Definitions of Decision Making and Objective Setting
2 Decision Making: a conscious thinking process aimed at choosing one or more things.
3 Perhaps the above definition should exclude the word “conscious”* since people appear to make decisions without conscious thinking. (Examples. people breathe, get angry, urge their golf putt forward with their bodies, blink their eyelids – without conscious thought.)
4 As these notes aim to help Managers make wiser consciousdecisions, a definition that includes conscious thinking seems appropriate.
5 The word “things” in the definition includes “everything” e.g. ideas, objects, and objectives.
6 These notes mainly deal with choosing between objectives — a particular class of Decision Making.