1 of these notes defined checking (the measurement of something and a comparison of the result of the measurement with a standard), listed five stages in checking, and discussed the two major processes in checking (measuring and evaluating).
2 The notes listed the four inevitable activities involved in all checking and discussed some important ideas in measurement.
3 The Part 1 notes then discussed why check something, when to check, who should check, and who should receive the check.
4 These notes (Part Two) discuss what to check. Then the evaluation part of the checking process and cover purpose, the need for Subordinates to accept, and when they discuss – who should know of the check first and checking to controlling.
What to Check
Check a Plan and/or a Result
5 People can check on (a) a plan to achieve an (end) objective and/or (b) the results achieved with respect to an end objective or any stage along the way.
A Meaning for Evaluation
1 These notes defines evaluation as - the measurement of something and a comparison of the result of the measurement with a standard.
2 Appendix A explains some of the significant words of this definition.
Four Inevitable Activities of Evaluating
3 The following identifies four activities which must occur wherever evaluation takes place.
(a) Decide on a factor (or factors) to evaluate something. The stage of choosing a factor equals choosing a (measurement) scale since the concept of a factor implies some measurement. The factor exists or it does not exist (an example of a classification scale).*
(b) Identify a standard – on the scale chosen. Sometimes the Evaluator will select a point, sometimes a band. Sometimes someone else will have already chosen a standard and will expect the Evaluator to use that standard.
(c) Measure performance. Measuring performance involves some tricky problems. (The notes “Introduction to Measurement” discusses some of the problems involved.)
(d) Compare performance with standard. This activity involves drawing a conclusion – once someone relates the performance on the scale with the standard on the same scale.
Errors can occur in any One of the Inevitable Activities
4 The four inevitable activities occur in any evaluation. Many people do not realise that they exist. Although it seems quite obvious when someone points them out, often people do not analyse the evaluation process systematically.
5 Something can go wrong with any one of the activities listed and then, a wrong evaluation can occur.
1 Both these words often refer to a particular objective and/or activity.
2 Effectiveness refers to whether any actions taken achieve an objective or not. Thus we have effective behaviour – one which achieves the end objective and ineffective behaviour – which does not achieve the objective.
3 Efficiency refers to the amount of resources used in relation to the objective achieved.
4 Example. If Tom used $1,000 and one hour of time to achieve a particular objective but Pam used $800 and 45 minutes to achieve exactly the same objective, Pam’s activity would rate as more efficient.
5 The resources may include time, money, materials, machines anything required to achieve an end objective.
1 Most meetings waste many minutes for those who attend. Just think of the improvement in productivity if people could eliminate only half of this wasted time.
2 While the cause lies in many areas, poor chairing of meetings contributes more than most.
3 Thus Chairpersons should examine their own behaviour by answering the following questions.
4 When you announce an agenda item or a new topic, do you put your own view first?
5 On at least half the occasions, immediately after a Meeting Member has contributed something, do you make some comment?
1 Groups aim to achieve different objectives during group discussions.
2 Some people believe that a group will have a better chance of achieving its objectives if one or more people focus on the way the group goes about trying to achieve its objectives. Some people call that aspect – the process.
3 Different people use different terms to label anyone who tries to help a group function better. The terms include – Leader, Facilitator, and Chairperson.
4 Probably most people will accept that the terms Facilitator and Conference Leader describe people who try to achieve particular classes of objectives (e.g. the method of discussion). Attempts to achieve these classes of objectives and their achievement can help (or hinder) a group’s ability to achieve the group’s objective.
5 But what objectives should people who have these roles (and other ordinary group members) try to achieve? Should Leaders, Facilitators, and Chairpersons all try to do the same things? Or does leading, facilitating, and chairing involve two or three different groups of activities.
Circumstance One: A Plan – Only for the Planner’s Use
1 Anyone who wants to achieve an end objective will have to achieve some related sub objectives in order to do so.
2 Sometimes people give little time to selecting their sub objectives. They have some idea of how they will achieve their end objective and they try to identify and achieve sub objectives virtually as they go.
3 But some people prefer to prepare a written plan – for their own use. Often they will do so when they do not feel confident they can achieve their end objective and/or where they will have “many” sub objectives.
4 But, if no-one else needs to understand, and/or use, the plan; Planners do not have to make their plan understandable to others.
Circumstance Two: A Plan – For the Use of Others
5 Some situations require others to understand a Planner’s plan.
1 Part 1 of these notes defined a plan and planning and discussed a meaning for “plan better” and some important elements in planning. Part 2 discussed how to use the two stages of planning to plan better.
2 This part discusses how the elements in a plan provide another means of studying how to plan better. The notes consider how best to ensure that a plan does include all the parts necessary to make it effective. They also discuss the need for alternative plans, planning in a broader long-term context, and ways of reviewing a completed plan.
The Elements in a Plan
3 Effective Planning will lead to a Plan.
4 A Plan must consist of the following elements:
(a) End Objective
(b) Other Objectives which someone believes will help to achieve the end objective (called Sub-Objectives in these notes)
5 The plan may include:
(a) when the Planner wants some or all of the sub-objectives
(ii) completed and
(iii) the time someone should take to achieve them.
(b) the sequence for starting and/or finishing some or all of the sub-objectives.
(c) the people to achieve the sub-objectives
(d) the resources (other than people) involved in each sub- objective (e.g. machines, material)
(e) the place to achieve the sub-objectives.