Ensure that all Members appreciate the Distinction the Meeting makes between accepting and adopting a Report

1 Many Meetings use such a phrase as: “Move that we adopt the Report”.

2 Sometimes the phrases mean nothing but Members continue to use them because they feel that it confirms to “correct” meeting procedure. Rarely do Members analyse whether the procedure achieves anything.

3 If it has no meaning, it wastes time and Meetings should eliminate the practice.

4 Sometimes the phrase means different things to different Members: some believe it means nothing, some believe it means everyone agrees with the content of the Report, others have not given any thought as to what it really means.

5 For some people the “adoption” to include the passing of all recommenda­tions leads to the wholesale adoption of all recommendations. Sometimes Members do not consider each one carefully enough. Continue reading

Distinction between Effectiveness and Efficiency

1 Both these words often refer to a particular objective and/or activity.

2 Effectiveness refers to whether any actions taken achieve an objective or not.    Thus we have effective behaviour – one which achieves the end objective and ineffective behaviour – which does not achieve the objective.

3 Efficiency refers to the amount of resources used in relation to the objective achieved.

4 Example. If Tom used $1,000 and one hour of time to achieve a particular objective but Pam used $800 and 45 minutes to achieve exactly the same objective, Pam’s activity would rate as more efficient.

5 The resources may include time, money, materials, machines anything required to achieve an end objective.

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Distinction between Empathy and Sympathy

1 Empathy refers to the recognition/understanding of the state of mind of another Person – without feeling (as in sympathy) what the other Person feels

2 The attitude in empathy involves people in acceptance and understanding. It implies that people say to themselves: I see/recognise/understand how you (the other person) feel.

3 Sympathy describes the Process of feeling with anther person  The person says -  in effect: – I feel what you (the other person) feels.   I feel joy with your joy. I feel sorrow with your sorrow.

4 The word understanding in the definition of empathy refers to recognising something and appreciating it.


5 . Some Employers and/or Selectors favour the idea that to become an effective Sales Representative, the person must have empathy.

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Distinction between Line Authority and Staff Authority

Definitions of Authority – General,  Positional, and Personal

1 The following paragraphs define three different types of authority:

2 Authority – A Relationship between two people where one Person gets another Person to do (or try to do) something

3 Positional Authorirty  – A relationship which an Organisation tries to arrange between two people where One Person (a Subordinate) will do (or try to do) something that relates to the Organisation’s Objectives which another Person (A Manager) has   .

4 Personal Authority – A Relationship between two People where one Person will do (or try to do) what another wants them to do – for reasons other than that the Organisation wants them to have such a relationship   .

Definitions of LIne Authority and Staff Authority

5 The following paragraphs define line authority and staff authority. Readers should note that both these terms refer to position authority. Thus organisations try to create both line authority and staff author­ity.

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Distinction between Managing and Operating

1 These notes define Managing as – A Continuous Process of determining Objectives and trying to achieve them through the Efforts of other People   .

2 They define Operating as – A Continuous Process of determining Objectives and trying to achieve them  .

3 Thus the distinction between Managing and Operating lies in the phrase “through the effort of other people”.

4 If someone tries to do something and tries to do it by him­self/herself than he/she has carried out the activity of operating (as defined above). People who decide to do something and then get another person to do it carry out the activity of managing.

5 The distinction between managing and operating will prove difficult to make unless the person making the distinction relates the activities to one particular objective. An activity will rate as operating from the viewpoint of one objective, but managing from the viewpoint of a different objective.

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Distinction between Neutral and Unsure

1 In many situations people give their views on something by either agreeing or disagreeing (or accepting or rejecting it).

2 However sometimes they feel unsure or neutral. But do unsure and neutral mean the same thing?

3 Many people will not distinguish between them.Some who do will make different distinctions.

4 These notes offer one useful distinction between neutral and unsure.

5 They suggest defining both neutral and unsure as not stating acceptance or rejection.   However neutral also means that the person believes that additional evidence will not alter his/her position. However people feeling unsure believe that additional evidence might alter
their position – either towards acceptance (agreement) or rejection (disagreement).

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Distinction between Normal and Average

1 Perhaps the simplest way to distinguish between normal and average involves thinking of an average as a point on a scale and normal as a band (the distance between two points).

2 Example. Male Adults with normal height would fall be­tween (say) five feet (152 cms) and six feet three inches (182 cms). The average adult male height might equal five feet seven inches (170 cms). Thus we may have many people who rate as either above average or below average but still within a normal band.

3 Unfortunately it proves difficult to set specific points for the edges of the band of normality.

4 Example. Does a person who has a height of 6’6″ (190.4cms) rate as abnormal? Presumably people would indi­cate seven feet (213.3cms) as abnormal but just when does a height start to rate as abnormal?

Applicastion of Distinction

5 People should realise that they can describe somebody as normal but still rate them as not average i.e. they rate as below average or above average.

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Distinction between Objective and Standard

A Meaning for Objective and Standard

1 Objective – A future result which someone believes someone should try to achieve.

2 Standard – A point or band on a scale that will help someone evaluate progress (or lack of it) toward an objective  .

A Relationship between Objective and Standard

3 From the above definitions, the following relationship exists – A standard plus an intention by someone to achieve the standard becomes an objective  fir that person .

4 Thus a standard would become an objective when someone believes that someone, not necessarily, themselves should try to achieve that par­ticular standard.

5 Thus a point on a scale can exist (standard) but no-one tries to achieve that point or no-one believes that anyone else should try to achieve it. In such a case the standard does not also fall into the category of an objective.

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Distinction between Objective and Subjective

1 People use the words “objective” and “subjective” (as adjectives) to describe various things.

2 Example. People could put either objective or subjective in front of the following words and phrases: evidence, meas­urement, and evaluation.

3 A useful distinction between objective and subjective uses the amount of human opinion involved in whatever the adjectives describe. At one end of the scale (using this factor), human opinion does not play any part (objective). At the other end, human opinion plays the complete part i.e. no one else can verify one person’s (subjective) ob­servation.

4 Example. A thermometer measures the temperature surround­ing it. The measurement does not depend on human observa­tions. Thus it rates as an objective measurement. However Person A may find the room temperature “hot” whereas a per­son standing right beside A finds it “comfortable”. These people use subjective measurements and evaluations of tem­perature.

5 However does a clear-cut dividing line exist on the scale of amount of human observation; i.e. does the measurement (or evaluation or evi­dence) involve some human opinion or not. If we can draw such a divid­ing line we can call the matter on which human opinion plays the same part – “subjective” and the matter on which human opinion plays NO part – “objective”.

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Distinction between Successful and Effective Communication

1 A successful communication describes a communication which occurs when one person (a Sender) gets his/her mental image over into the mind of another person (a Receiver) – on the information which the Sender desires to communicate. Thus a successful communication occurs when two people (Sender and Receiver) have identical mental images on the topic the Sender aims to send.

2 However a Sender who gets his/her idea into the mind of another per­son will not necessarily ensure that the Receiver will achieve the Sender’s objective. The phrase “effective communication” refers to this part of a communication.

3 An effective communication describes a communication which achieves  the objective of the Sender of the communication.

4 Example. Dick asks Fred to shut the only door in the room in which they both work. Fred gets up and shuts the door. Thus the communication rates as both successful and effective.

5 Readers should note that (by definition) all effective communica­tions must rate as successful.1

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