A Model of Manager Developing A

Some Parts & Processes Involved in Manager Developing

1 The above model and its contents assumes no differences between the process of: Training, Developing, and Educating. Thus it uses the term Trainer (rather than Developer or Educator) and the term Trainee (rather than Developee or Educatee or Student).

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A Management Training Program

Introduction To Management — Session Details

1 The following sections provide a short explanation of what happens in each session of two three-day “Introduction to Management” Courses.

2  This course does not represent a packaged course. It provides an example of what one Consultant put together to meet the needs expressed by one Client.

Item 1: Course Opening

3 A Senior Executive opens the Course and takes up to five minutes to explain what the Organisation aims to do by asking people to attend the Course.

Item 2: Course Introduction And Evaluation

4 The Course Introduction covers a variety of administration details.(e.g. Times of Starting and Ending, Training Approaches Used).

5 The Course Evaluation uses specific statements which relate to Course objectives.

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Role-Playing Exercise – The Concerned Supervisor

1 You supervise a Section consisting of eight staff. You find it an easy Section to run as everyone gets on well and helps each other out.

2 One of your Clerks always helps others in the Section and people see him/her as a happy talkative person who loves having a joke.

3 This morning the Clerk came in late (most unusual) and has not said a word to anyone since coming in. He/She has just sat at a desk and stared out into the distance. The phone has rung and rung and others have had to answer it.

4 A couple of workmates have tried to talk with …………………… but have received almost no answer. The normally happy Clerk does not seem to hear them.

5 You wonder if something unusual has occurred and so you ask……………………..     to come into your office.

6 You aim to get your Clerk back to operating effectively again.

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Role-Playing Exercise – Statistical Errors – Male

A Male Staff Member

1 You have worked in a Clerk Class 7 job for some time. You recently applied for the Class 8 position which heads up the sub-section in which you work. However you lost out to a woman who has now become your Immedi­ate Supervisor.

2 You feel unhappy about the selection decision. Further, you do not like working for a woman. However, you did not appeal against the decision.

3 The sub-section has to produce staffing statistics for departmental use. Among other things your job involves producing monthly statistical sum­maries of the staffing situation. You obtain your data from Personnel.

4 Personnel have organised their work so they can give you data at the end of each month but often you receive the data after the cut-off time. Further, you always have problems getting information from them at other times of the month. Regular staff changes in Personnel increase the diffi­culties. You have to explain to each new person in the job what you need and to define the sorts of data that fall under each category.

5 Recently, your Supervisor asked you to prepare a response to a parlia­mentary question concerning the number of officers on various types of leave, excluding recreation leave. You had never had to prepare a response to a parliamentary question before. Further, you had a lot to do to finish another project on time.

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Definition – Work – Towards a Definition


1 Ir proves difficult to define work .

2 However the following material shows some thinking done to try to achieve an accurate and useful definition. It should help people to think about what they mean by the word.

Some Definitions of Work

3 “The connotation of work is that it is some activity that must be carried out by a certain time and up to someone else’s standards.” (Emery & Phillips, 1976.)

4 “Work means those activities normally performed for pay.” (Bryan in Dunnette, 1973.)

5 “A Work role is defined as a set of functions to be performed by a role occupant, the performance of which contributes to the production of goods and services.” (Vroom, 1964.)

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Definition – Perception

Perception describes the interpretation which a person’s mind gives to any particular incoming stimuli.


1  People often believe the word “perception” means understanding. However the above definition uses the one that Psychologists use. It refers to the interpretation which each person gives to the stimuli that enters his/her mind. Thus perception does not indicate something which a person understands or does not understand. Provided the mind perceives a stimulus it will give it some interpretation.

2 The definition uses the word “mind” to allow for people (their mind) to interpret a particular signal or stimulus that they get from one part of their body.

3 Examples. Tom gives some meaning or interpretation to a pain in his left leg. However 24 hours previously he had his left leg amputated.

4 Different parts of the body have different abilities to distinguish between different sensations. On a sensitive area (the first finger) people feel two points of pressure from a two-pointed instrument with the points set only a centimetre apart. However people will perceive only one point if someone places the same two points on their back.

Practical Application

5 Anyone who wishes to understand, predict, or influence the behaviour of other people (as Managers do) should give particular attention to the above idea of perception.

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How much Time should Organisations spend on finding Training Needs


1 People have different views on how much an Organisation should spend on find their Training Needs. Different Organisations take different actions on this matter.

2 The different assumptions which people hold explain some of this varia­tion.

3 These notes list some important assumptions. They aim to encourage Readers to examine these assumptions, identify their own, and estimate the degree to which evidence supports the different assumptions. This process should help Readers decide how much their Organisation should spend on finding Training Needs.

4 Readers should note that these notes refer only to Training Needs related to Managing. They do not refer to Training Needs related to tech­nical knowledge of the processes and products of a particular Organisation.

Assumptions About Managers

5 Few Managers have much useful information to offer when asked to state some specific training needs of their Subordinates.

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Pareto’s Principle


1 Pareto, an Italian statistician, put forward a principle which helps people to investigate problems and plan better.


2 The principle states: In many situations involving a large number of factors, a minority of the factors will cause a majority of the effects.* In general: the vital few cause most of the results.

3 Example. A business has 200 Customers. If the business ranks these Customers in the order of the size of their accounts (the biggest purchaser first and then in descending order) the first (say) 20 on the list (10% of the total Customers) will account for (say) 90% of the value of total sales. Alternately the first 20% will account for the first 80% of the total sales.

4 If the figures in the above example apply, then Pareto’s Principle applies in that situation. Pareto’s Principle applies to the number of Customers compared with the value of sales in many Companies.

5 Example. Probably 500 or more known causes of fatal car acci­dents exist, but the first ten causes account for over half of the accidents.

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Avoiding the Loss of Urgent Messages

Introduction – Some Problems

1 An important Customet rings and says “Why didn’t you ring me? I rang you two days ago and asked your Secretary to ask if you would please ring me.”

2 Pat calls Mary into the Office and asks Mary why she has not done a particular job. Pat states “I left a note on your desk to get that job done yesterday morning and said I wanted it urgently.”

3 One of your Subordinates has an urgent personal need to take time off work and because he does not hear from you feels upset, blames you, and persuades other people of your lack of fairness in the way you treat staff.

An Explanation

4 In the above cases different reasons could explain each of the above situations. However the following one explanation could fit each case: Someone wrote a message and put it on your desk or at your work-place. If you had seen it you would have carried out the desire of the Message Sender to their satisfaction.

5 Sometimes Managers do not receive messages because they get lost among other papers. Such Managers come into their office, see a lot of material at their desk. They do not have time to sort through the material before having to leave again to do another particular job. Or they have just have time to pick up and work on a couple of urgent jobs that they know exist.

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Wise Time Usage – Learning while doing Something Else


1 Provide a means (e.g. a recorded cassette) for some learning by listen­ing while doing something else, which does not stop (some) learning taking place.

2 The “something else” might include such activities as: driving a car, sitting in a car (waiting); eating, shaving, showering, defecating, waiting for a Prospect/Customer/Superior/Subordinate, during dull parts of some leisure activities.

3 Some of the previous examples will require the use of a communication channel that excludes all others except the Learner e.g. an ear plug in conjunction with a recorder.


4 Create an environment which will encourage people to use the “means” (e.g. recorded cassette).

5 Choose Learners who will want to make use of such “means”. This sub-objective rates as a dependent variable. However an environment that will “cause” a keen Student to use the means may not cause a less-keen Student to use it.

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