Understanding and Influencing People – Part 1 – List of Notes

Understanding and Influencing People – An Introduction. (3)
Introduction to the Person. (20)
Needs and Motives. (21)
A Check List of Points for Learning More About People’s Needs and Motives. (11)
Some Ideas to Help Managers Achieve an ‘Approipriate Direction and Strength-of Motivation in Particular Subordinates. (4)
Motivation – Three Meanings. (3)
Motivation and Productivity. (15)
Gellerman’s Theory of Motivation. (1)
The Vroom Model of Motivation. (8)

Perception. (10)
A Personality Report Which Probably Will Describe Almost Everyone (2)
Emotion. (23)
Frustration. (19)
The number in brackets shows the number of pages in the notes.

Improving Groups

Group Behaviour

Team Building

Some Proositions about Team Building

INfluencing People

Developing Desrab;le Attitudes

Should Managers use Threats

Some Points on improving Industrial Relations

Praise and Punishment

Understanding and Influencing People – Part 2 – List of Contents

Remuneration of People

(The number in the brackets show the number of pages in the notes)

A Memo to Introduce a Remuneration Investigation. (5)
Remuneration Investigation Personal Details Questionnaire. (3)
Remuneration Investigation -.Position Description Questionnaire. (7)
A Frame of Reference for-Looking at Remuneration,

Evaluation of People

Evaluation of People. (22)
Evaluation of People – Example of a Plan (1)

Evaluation of Sales Representatives.    (8)
Some Ideas on Performance Appraisals.,    (4)
Split Roles on Performance Appraisal.    (9)
Some Methods for Encouraging Appraisers to Carry Out Their Appraisal. (4)
Whose Standards Have the Greatest Influence — Your Own or Those of Your Manager. (3)
Some Ideas for Changing the Standard That a Person Has for a Particular Piece of Work. (3)

 Stress and Conflict

Some Signs Which Suggest That an Individual May. Begin to Function Poorly. (2)

Some Sources of Stress on the Job. (2)
How Much Stress Can You Take? (2)
Some Ideas for Dealing With Conflict. (6)

Some Specific Problems connected with People

An Executive Wants to Try a Different Type of Work. (4)
How to Reduce the Failure of Staff People who move into a Line Management Position. (5)
Induction for Executives – Use Reference Checks as a Basis for Counselling. (1)
How to Gain Some Benefits from a Failed Executive. (4)
How to Keep Proficient Operators Contented Without Promoting Them. (4)
Plateaued Performers – Pitfalls and Opportunities. (5)
Some Questions to Help Conduct Adult Vocational Guidance. (3)
How to Feel Satisfied at the End of Your Day -Provided You Have Worked Hard. (4)
Some Thoughts on – Do You Trust Me? (4)


Evaluation – in General
A Below-Satisfactory Performance. (1) Definition – Perception. (1)
Framework – Four Inevitable Factors in Evaluation. (1)
Hierarchy – A Below Satisfactory Performance. (1)
Some Aids to Using the Exercise: A Below Satisfactory Performance. (2)
Evaluation of People
Joseph Longman Case. (4) “Truth Hurts”. (4)
A Personal Shield. (1)
Co-operative Behavior. (2)
Views on Your Own Personality. (3)
Some Problems in Dealing with People
The Relationship of Performance and Stress. (2)
A Changing Scene. (2)
Stress: Signs, Causes, and Aids to Reduction. (1)

All Executives included in the Survey from  …………………..

Remuneration Investigation

1 ………………….. (the Client )    has engaged ………………………. (the Consultatn)  to prepare a recommended remuneration package for most of its middle-level and senior-level Managerial positions, including your position.

2 We need some information about each of the positions and some details about the person holding the position. Thus we need help from each position holder.

3 We would be pleased if you would:

(a) Fill in the attached Personal Details Questionnaire.

(b) Prepare a Position Description describing your job – as requested in the second Questionnaire.

4 We find that it helps if your immediate Manager goes over the Position Description with you. Position Holders often find it difficult to remember all their objectives. Their Manager can sometimes remind them of some items.

5 Thus, would you please:

(a) Fill in your Personal Details and Position Description Questionnaire

(b) Ask the person to whom you report to check over the Position Description (not the Personal Details).

(c) Mail both the forms direct to ………………( the Consultant )  We would like to receive then not later than two weeks after you receive this memo. Earlier mailing would help.

6 It would help ……………..(the Consultant) if you had your answers typed. Probably you (the Position Holder) will want to retain a copy – and perhaps you should give a copy to your immediate manager.

7 If you cannot have your ideas typed or it would delay your reply significantly, please write legibly.

8 We have included three copies of each of the forms. We have sent extra copies to the Chief Executive of your Organisation in case you want extra copies.

1 If in doubt about including any information please include it.

2 Include year when qualifications gained.

3 Include any part qualification, e.g. passed two years of an Applied Chemistry Diploma at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in the period 1976-78.Work Experience since about 1970

4 Include your work activities with your present Company (as well as previous Employers) and indicate all the different positions you have held in it.

5 Start with your oldest job.

6 Give more details about your resent Company than the earlier ones. Set out the information in different columns as shown next

     Organisation                   Position(s) & Details                       Dates

                                                                                                   From       To


7 Please include any details about yourself (not covered earlier in this form or in the Position Description) which you believe the Consutant and/or your present Management should know. These matters should relate to remuneration surveys. Probably most Executives will leave this section blank. However the section helps to ensure that Executives can communicate something else if they wish to.

The following material lists headings for various pages that ask a Respondent to fill in the details . This post will not leave the space after each item that would normally appear on an actual sheet used to collect information

Organisation Structure

1 Please draw a chart showing

(a) to whom you report and

(b) who reports to you.

2 Include the people who report to you and to your Subordinates.

* Some Positions may not have a title; if so, use “No Title Exists”.

Broad Objectives of Your Position

4 Please list here the broad objectives which you believe a holder of your position should aim to achieve. (Most Position Descriptions would not exceed four of five broad objectives.)

Detailed Objectives

5 Please list the matters which you believe a person who holds this position should try to achieve. Probably these objectives will help to achieve one or more of the broad  objectives you listed in the previous section. (You may have 10, 15, 20 or even sore of these objectives.)

A Frame of Reference for looking at Remuneration

Some Objectives for remunerating People

1 Any Organisation aims to achieve a number of objectives by the remuneration it pays to its Members.

2 Thus any estimate of the “correct” salary for (a) a particular position and/or (b) the person holding the position should keep in mind what the salary aims to achieve in relation to these objectives.

3 The objectives would include one or more of the following:

(a) Recruit suitable Applicants

(b) Retain (if desired) the Position Holder – once appointed

(c) Encourage a high level of application to achieving the position’s objectives by the Position Holder

(d) Encourage the Position Holder to give attention to the “right” objectives for the Organisation

(e) Rate as fair* with regard to other positions within the Organisation

(f) Rate as fair* with respect to the community’s values and objectives. This factor probably equals the idea behind the phrase “national interests”.

4 For senior-level positions the following special objectives apply:

(g) Provide opportunities for other Executives’ salaries to achieve one or more of the above objectives.

5 Example. Payment of a given remuneration to a Chief Executive will usually influence payments made to Executives who work in the same Organisation and report to the Chief Executive. Continue reading

Evaluation of People


1 These notes describe evaluation, its processes, and its important elements. They identify the common objectives of evaluation and consider various types of evaluations, particularly formal ones. These notes also consider the difficult problems of measuring aspects of people and determining which aspects to measure, together with methods of reducing some inaccuracies in many of the methods.

2 They also consider why two people evaluate the same person differently and who people should evaluate, together with actions which should follow evaluation.

A Definition of Evaluation

3 These notes define an evaluation as – the Conclustion drawn from comparing a Result (or a Measurement) with a Standard

4 Evaluation occurs as the second part of the checking process and must involve-

(a) a scale, common to both the performance result and the standard.

(b) a result* – the measurement of performance (i.e. a point, or band, on a scale.

(c) a standard – a point on, or part of, a scale which someone believes will help evaluate progress toward an objective.

5 People should note that a measurement of performance will not evaluate anything. Continue reading

Evaluation of Sales Representatives


1 These notes follow on from the notes on the Evaluation of People. They identify four major areas available for the evaluation of Sales Representatives and discuss: (a) both objective and subjective factors within these areas and (b) whether factors rate as global or detailed.

2 The notes also discuss how, and whether, results of a Representative depend on the Representative’s Personality, Knowledge, and Actions during work, and the possibility of establishing a minimum acceptable and correct standard for various evaluation factors.

A Meaning for – Evaluation*

3 Evaluation involves the comparison of something with a standard. Thus evaluation requires:

Four Major Areas available for the evaluation of Sales Representatives

4 In the evaluation of Sales Representatives, Evaluators can choose a number of aspects or areas. The following shows one framework:

(a) Personality of the Representative

(b) Knowledge held of:

(i) Salesmanship -

(A) in general

(B)    specifically for the Representative’s current Company

(C) specifically for a particular product

* The  notes on “Evaluation of People” give many more details on the subject of evaluation.

(b) Knowledge  held of (cont.):

(ii) the Product itself

(iii) the Environment in which the Representative sells (e.g. Territory, Customers, Opposition, etc.).

(c) Actions the Representative takes with respect to: M Planning

(ii) Actual Activities (Calls made, Displays arranged, Reports submitted).

(d) Results from the Territory (from the Representative’s own efforts mainly or from some combination of their own and the activities of other personnel of the Organisation; e.g. advertising, packaging, treatment of Prospects by Switchboard Operator).

Examples of the Four Major Areas

5 Personality Factors. A Manager can evaluate a Representative’s determination and enthusiasm by observing the Representative. Continue reading

Some Ideas for changing the Standard that a Person has for a particular Piece of Work *


1 Sometimes people do not perform part of their work satisfactorily – according to the standards held by their Manager.

2 Sometimes Subordinates feel they have performed satisfactorily because they have a lower standard than their Manager uses. Thus, while the Manager criticises a below-satisfactory performance, the Subordinates classify the same performance as satisfactory, because they use a different standard.

3 When Managers find out this situation exists they should realise that it will prove of little value to keep pushing the Subordinate to improve performance because the Subordinate already believes the performance rates as satisfactory or better. A Manager who wishes a Subordinate to increase his/her performance will need to increase the standard that the Subordinate rates as satisfactory.

4 These notes examine some ideas for changing a standard held by a Subordinate. This action assumes that once Subordinates increase the standard they will automatically feel dissatisfied with their performance and want to increase it.

Some Specific Ideas

Produce Evidence that Others Use a Higher Standard

5 Sometimes Managers will find that other people use a higher standard than the Subordinate whose performance dissatisfies them. In this situation they can give this information to their Subordinates and create some doubts in their mind regarding the suitability of the standard that the Subordinates use. Continue reading

Some Signs which suggest that an Indvidual may begin to function poorly


1 Readers should note that any one sign, by itself, does not necessarily mean that stress has occurred or will occur.

Some Signs

2 Sudden changes in behaviour.

3 Continuously long and/or excessive working hours.

4 Decrease in quality of decisions made. Possibly, a decrease in the number of decisions made.

5 Physical signs (e.g. nervous cough, shaking hands, excessive use of alcohol). Continue reading