Exercise – Setting Objectves in Your Position

Objective of Exercise

1 Improve the ability of Course Members to set objectives for their current position (a).

 

Background Comments

2 Every Executive tries to achieve objectives. Some select carefully those they wish to achieve and try to achieve them without straying into activities concerned with other objectives. Many do not really think carefully about objectives. Too few set them deliberately and compare one with another. Too few check whether their objectives fit in with objectives of their immediate Manager.

3 This Exercise aims to help Course Members by getting them to prepare a list of their objectives and encouraging thought and discussion about these objectives in relation to the person’s job and their section’s objectives.

Sub Objectives

Own Objectives

4 List about eight to twelve important objectives that you believe you should try to achieve in the next six to nine months for your present position (b).

5 Exclude any objectives which rate as continuous activity objectives (c). Continuous Activity Objectives refer to objectives which have no end.

6. Examples – Run the factory, Purchase all material, Manage my section, Sell our products.

 

Objectives of Immediate Manager

7 Find out the important objectives of your immediate Manager for the same period as your objectives.

8 This section of the Exercise may prove difficult with some Managers. If you meet refusals, deferments, etc. you may need to write out some objectives for your immediate Manager from whatever information you have.

9 Perhaps an approach that asks the Manager to check on your view of the Manager’s job may obtain useful information from the Manager.

10 Whatever you do (with, or without, contact with your immediate Manager), please ensure you submit a list of eight to twelve important (non- continuous) objectives of, or for, your immediate Manager.

(a) Presumably improved ability to set objectives for their current position will also help Course Members to set objectives better in future positions.

(b) In all cases, where objectives and any other material for submission includes confidential information, alter the material and/or include an “x” to represent vital figures.

(c) The notes on “A Classification for Objectives” give more information on types of objectives.

 

Own Position Description

11 Obtain, or prepare, your own Position Description.

12 If you already have one for your position please alter it to fit into the framework provided in the notes – Position Descriptions.

13 If you do not have a Position Description (or cannot obtain one) prepare one in the form laid down in the notes on Position Descriptions.

 

Position Description for Immediate Boss

14 Submit a Position Description for the position of your immediate Manager.

15 If you cannot obtain one, prepare one.

16 Obtain agreement from your Manager as to the accuracy of the Position Description. If difficulties arise, some Course Members may prefer to abandon this objective of gaining the opinion/agreement of their Manager.

 

Procedure at Course

16 Submission of the above material before the Course starts will allow the Course Organiser to have copies prepared of all the material for distribution to all Course Members.

17 At the Course, Members will discuss each other’s objectives in the light of (a) their Position Description and (b) the Position Description and Objectives (actual or guessed) of the Immediate Manager.

Exercise – Choosing the right time to build and/or expand a Factory

Exercise

Choosing the right time to build and/or expand a Factory


1
Scott Pty Ltd has the offer of a new product from an American Manufacturer.

2 A summary of the market investigation carried out by Scotts gives the following information.

3 An 0.03 probability exists that the demand for the new product will average out as “low” for the whole of the next five years and the operating profit for the five year period will amount to $1 million(excluding the cost of the plant) under such circumstances.

4 A probability of 0.10 exists that the demand will prove “high” in the first one to two years but will then drop off to about the same level as the “low” sales in the paragraph above. In these circumstances, operating profit estimates show $3 million.

5 A “high” demand for the whole five years will produce an operating profit of $9 million. Investigators give this situation an 0.60 probability of occurring.

6 In order to make this new product satisfy the high demand, Scotts would have to build a large plant – at a cost of $3.5 million.

7 However the nature of the manufacturing operation would also allow a plant with about half the capacity of the above plant. Such a plant would cost $2 million.

8 If the Company decided to extend this smaller plant they could do so (to  a capacity equal to the original large plant) for an additional $2.5 million.

9 Note: Investigators used the Discounted Cash Flow technique on all the profit and plant cost figures given in the above paragraphs and in those which follow. They have brought all figures to their present value.*

10 The small plant could cope with the “low” level of demand for the five years. The small plant (unextended) coping with a low demand level for the whole five years would produce an operating profit of $3.8 million.

* Discounted Cash Flow techniques provide a method of bringing monetary amounts to the same basis, irrespective of when the incoming or outgoing occurs, over a period of time.  Example. An amount of $100 today has a greater value than $100 gained in two-years time, since the owner of the $100 can invest it and gain interest. Thus $100 gained in two-years time might have about $80 of value now. But this approximate figure (and all Discounted Cash Flow calculations) depend on someone deciding what money will earn (in interest) over period. The figures used in this exercise also assume no inflation (or deflation).

Choosing the right time to build and/or expand a Factory

11 If a “high” demand exists in the first two years, the probability of demand remaining “high” for the rest of the five-year period has a 0.80 probability.

12 The small plant could cope with a high demand in the first two years only. Thus if the Company makes the decision to buy the small plant first, it must extend the plant if it wishes to supply a “high” demand in the last three years.

13 Such a situation and decision (as compared with having the large plant to begin with) would have allowed Competitors to have a greater effect on Scott’s marketing of this new product, Thus Scotts would make a lower operating profit, $7 million ($3 million in the first two years and $4 million for the next three), if the demand starts off high and continues so and Scotts build an extension to their small plant.

14 If Scotts build a small plant and extend it but the demand proves low for the last three years (probability = 0.20) they will earn a profit of $2 million for the last three years. (This figure does not allow for the cost of extending the plant ($2.5 million),

15 If Scotts do not extend their plant then the low demand will produce an estimated profit of %2.5 million.

16 If they do not extend and the demand proves high, they estimate a profit of $3 million.

17 Prepare a Decision Tree to help Scotts decide –

(a)   whether to build a large plant or a small plant (assume they will build one or other ), and

(b)  whether to extend or not extend the small plant.

18 If you held the position of Managing Director of Scotts, what would you do on this matter? Why?

 

Exercise – The Difference between (a) Decisions and (b) Consequences/Results in Decision Trees.

Objective of Exercise

1 Ensure Course Members can distinguish between (a) Decisions and (b) Consequences and/or Results to — help them more—easily understand and/or draw Decision Trees.

Classify Items below into (A) Decisions or (B) Consequences and/or Results

2 Please put a D (Decision) or C (Consequence/Result) beside each of the following items to show in which class they belong.

3 Make your classification from the viewpoint of the person “I” and/or “Company A” (not Company B).

4 It will rain heavily tomorrow afternoon.

5 I will go on a picnic my friend has arranged.

6 I decide to go to mystery film “X” (i.e. Picture Goers do not know what film they will see).

7 I find out that I have seen mystery film X before.

8 My brother buys a boat.

9 I buy 1000 shares in XYZ Company Ltd.

10 Company B decides to bring out a Competitive Product to Company A.

11 Company A makes a Profit.

12 The Product Company A develops captures a large market share quickly.

13 My Boss becomes angry.

14 The Machine in my factory breaks down.

15 My Mother decides she does not want to go on the picnic I planned.

16 Company A repairs its old Printing Press – instead of buying a new one.

17 Company B decides not to raise its prices.

18 Our sales force fills in the new report form accurately.

19 My friend does not get the new job for which he applied.

 

Exercise – Memory and the Documents

The Problem

1 Stan approaches Beth (his Boss) and says that he does not quite know what to do. He cannot discover whether anyone has sent a copy of a set of documents to the New Zealand office or not. Stan knows that he had an instruction to send this material and something he read reminded him of it today, but he cannot remember if he sent it off.

2 Beth believes in Completed Staff Work so she now asks Stan what he recommends. Stan feels rather at a loss.

3 Beth asks Stan to state the critical factors involved in the situation and again Stan feels rather at a loss to distinguish the important factors for him in trying to make his recommendation.

Background Information

4 Nothing in the local office will indicate whether anyone has sent the documents and no one can remember whether anyone has sent them. The original of the documents involved still remains in the local office. Stan had to mail the documents to New Zealand; they did not have to go through Beth.

5 The Company has a copying machine but no facsimile machine. Mail between the two offices takes about 1-2 days by air. The documents concerned contain about 10-12 pages of closely-typed information.

6 The documents rate as confidential and would go to the Manager of the New Zealand Branch. Only he should know of their existence. The documents have immediate use to the New Zealand Branch and their use will last during this month and next month.

7 The New Zealand Manager believes in visiting his staff at his various local offices. Usually the Manager spends about three days out of every four away from the office.

8 He does not have a Private Secretary – he uses a tape recorder for his dictation and two or three different typists in the typing Department type the dictation depending on availability.

Questions

9 What would you recommend if you found yourself in Stan’s position?

10 List two important questions you should ask yourself to help you decide what to do?

11 Draw a Decision Tree to show the possible actions and their consequences (plus probabilities) in the above situation.

 

Exercise – Expected Values for Decision Tree – Exercise 10

  

Table 1  – EXPECTED VALUE OF DECISION TWO

          EXPECTED  

DECISION

DEMAND

p

PROFIT

p x PROFIT    

ADDITION

-

COST

=

VALUE  

High

0.8

4

3.2

Expand

3.6

-

2.5

=

1.1

Low

0.2

2

0.4

No

High

0.8

3

2.4

Explanation

2.9

-

Nil

=

2.9

Low

0.2

2.5

0.5

The preferred decision for Decision 2 becomes “No Expansion”.

TABLE 2  – EXPECTED VALUE OF DECISION ONE

                                      EXPECTED

DECISION

DEMAND

p

PROFIT

p x PROFIT

ADDITION

-

COST VALUE  

High

0.6

9

5.4

Large

High Low

0.1

3

0.3

6.00

-

3.5

=

2.5

Plant

Low

0.3

1

0.3

High

0.7

5.9

4.13

Small

5.27

-

2.0

=

3.27

Plant

Low

0.3

3.8

1.14

The preferred decision of Decision 2 becomes $2.9 million for a three-year period plus $3 million for the first two years.

 

 

 

TABLE 1  – EXPECTED VALUE OF DECISION 2
          EXPECTED  

DECISION

DEMAND

p

PROFIT p x PROFIT     ADDITION

ADDITION

-

COST

=

VALUE  

High

0.8

4

3.2

Expand

3.6

-

2.5

=

1.1

Low

0.2

2

0.4

No

High

0.8

3

2.4

Explanation

2.9

-

Nil

=

2.9

Low

0.2

2.5

0.5

The preferred decision for Decision 2 becomes “No Expansion”.
TABLE 2  – EXPECTED VALUE OF DECISION 1
                                      EXPECTED

DECISION

DEMAND

p

PROFIT

px PROFIT

ADDITION

-

COST VALUE  

High

0.6

9

5.4

Large

High Low

0.1

3

0.3

6.00

-

3.5

=

2.5

Plant

Low

0.3

1

0.3

High

0.7

5.9

4.13

Small

5.27

-

2.0

=

3.27

Plant

Low

0.3

3.8

1.14

The preferred decision of Decision 2 becomes $2.9 million for a thre-year period plus
      $3 million for the first two years.

 

Exercise – Objectives for your Job and their Classification

List of Specific Short-term Objectives

I Prepare – for your present position – a list of six to ten important objectives which you believe you should try to achieve in the next six to nine months.

2 These should not rate as continuous activity objectives (see notes on “A Classification for Objectives”). They should rate as “specific” and presumably would lie within the areas listed in your position description (assuming you have one).

Classification of these Objectives according to “clearness”

3 After you have written your objectives, put after each one in brackets the activity and time number from the notes so that you can (a) practise using the classification and (b) check just how “specific” your objectives rate.

Exercise – Preparing One’s own Position Description

Introduction

1 The attached shows details of Position Descriptions, their content, and an example of one.* In seeking to improve the efficiency of the Organisation, please consider your own position in the light of the details required by a Position Description and prepare a draft for your own position.

2 Work by you on this matter will help to consider the Organisation’s existing structure and investigate possible areas of improvement.

Two Approaches – Current & Proposed Improvement

Current

3 The draft should cover the position as you now see it and as you now perform it.

Proposed Improvements

4 At the end of each section of (a) Broad Objectives, (b) Detailed Objectives, (c) Relationships, and (d) Basis of Assessment, please add a new paragraph headed “Proposals” and write the changes that you believe the Organisation should make to your position. In essence, you will compare the position as you now carry it out with the position as you believe you should carry it out.

      5 Examples. You may believe that your position should have more position authority than it has. Perhaps you believe some of your objectives (broad or detailed) should go to a different position and such a move would help the Organisation’s overall effectiveness. Under “Relationships” you may believe that you should have more close relationships with another group of positions or that you should report to a person in a different position from whom you report to at present or you believe that one of your Subordinates should report to a different position.

6 In other words, apart from giving you an exercise in writing Position Descriptions which will help you to review what you do at the moment, we also ask you to review the position as you believe it should exist.

7 This task will not prove easy. However it rates as important to help gain improved effectiveness and efficiency in your Organisation. If you apply yourself to it you will gain insight into your own work and those about you.

8 Please have your Position Description prepared (handwritten accepted) and forwarded to me by …………..

9 We will discuss your Position Description with you at a later date.

* These Position Descriptions follow a particular philosophy and layout. Other approaches exist and will vary, sometimes significantly, from the above approach.

Attachment – Position Descriptions

Introduction

1 These notes give a meaning for a Position Description and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Position Descriptions. They identify and describe four major parts of a Position Description and give examples of these parts.

 A Meaning for Position Description

2 A Position Description describes –

(a) the objectives the Organisation expects       & the Position Holder to achieve Broad Objectives
(b) the rights the Position Holder has to make decisions and use the organisation’s resources(which include people), and Detailed Objectives
(c) the People with whom the Holder has need to communicate in order to achieve the position’s objectives. Relationship
(d) the standards used to evaluate the performance of the Position Holder. Basis of Assessment

Organisations need Written Position Descriptions

3 Organisations should prepare written Position Descriptions if they wish to use them effectively. Non-written ones lead to errors in communication and changes – people have different memories and interpretations.

 A Relationship between Position Descriptions and Job Specifications

4 People use different terms to mean different things. No generally— accepted labels exist in this area of Management thought.

5 These notes use the terms so that a Position Description plus a Person Specification equals a Job Specification. The Person Specification describes the person who fits the position.

Advantages of Position Descriptions

6 Position Descriptions help to achieve the following objectives:

(a) Ensure the Organisation has distributed its objectives between its various personnel so that every objective has at least one person trying to achieve it.

(b) Provide each person with a clear understanding of their position in the Organisation.

(c) Aid the training of new Members.

     (d) Provide a check list for a re-distribution of duties in a temporary, or permanent, change in the Organisation structure.

     (e) Provide a check list to help evaluate a person’s performance.

Disadvantages of Position Description

7 People in Organisations which have Position Descriptions will probably tell you that they rarely refer to them. Although probably true, the original preparation of Position Descriptions probably helped in a general “sorting out” of who should do what. Further, non-use does not prove that proper use would not help the Organisation.

8 Position Descriptions do help to avoid/reduce arguments between people on matters related to their objectives. However they may encourage people to do no more than the activities listed in their Position Description.

9 Further, Organisations (probably) should make more use of Position Descriptions when setting their short-term objectives.

10 However the scope of positions change over time and with changes in Personnel. Sometimes the changes occur deliberately, sometimes they just occur as different objectives receive different emphasis.

11 To keep Position Descriptions accurate in relation to the current real situation, someone must obtain the evidence and re—write the material. Thus a “disadvantage” involves the time/cost to keep them up-to-date. People tend not to refer to out-of-date Position Descriptions even more than they avoid referring to current ones.

Broad Objectives

12 The term Broad Objectives refers to the few* objectives which represent the overall objectives of a Position.

      13 Examples. (a) Branch Manager- Manage the Branch in a way which achieves or betters the budgeted profit. Help achieve overall (Australian) Company objectives as Member of Board of Management. (b) Sales Representative- Sell (personally) the Company’s products; in his designated territory. (c) Industrial Engineer- Help improve productivity in areas of your operations. Warn appropriate personnel of safety hazards.

14 Position Holders achieve their broad, or end, objectives by achieving various sub-objectives of a more-detailed nature.

Detailed Objectives

15 Detailed objectives should all help to achieve the Position’s Broad Objectives.

16 They divide into objectives which Position Holders -

     (a)   can achieve by themselves (e.g. Sign Purchase Order Forms);

      (b) need to use other resources than themselves to achieve (Arrange for a Typist to type three copies of all Purchase Orders); and

     (c ) must choose between – they have a choice between one or more objectives. (Decide whether to purchase goods from X or Y. Call on a marginally-profitable sales Prospect – or not.)

17 Most people would recognise the latter two classes of objectives as equalling the ideas of (Position) Authority – A relationship between one person and (a) other people and/or (b) resources (including money) such that the person can get others to try to (i) achieve objectives and (ii) use resources.

Detailed Objectives roughly equal Responsibilities*

18 Most Position Descriptions have a section headed “Responsibilities”. Other notes define Responsibility as – The attitude held by a particular person toward a particular objective (or group of Objectives) involving whether the person should – (a) attempt to achieve it, and (b) accept praise and/or blame for the degree of achievement.

* Most Position Descriptions would not exceed two or three broad objectives.

* Some Readers will like the idea of Position Descriptions including a section headed “Responsibilities and Authorities”. These notes prefer to look at these two headings as describing objectives. This approach focuses on what the Position Holder should try to achieve rather than the attitudes (responsibility) the Position Holder and others hold towards the objectives.

19 Thus the heading “Responsibilities” simply implies that someone (higher) in the Organisation believes the Position Holder should try to achieve the objectives of the Position Description and accept praise/blame for the results of the attempts.

20 Readers will find that the Responsibilities section of Position Descriptions fall into two classes: (a) objectives to help achieve the position’s broad objectives or (b) activities which they can quickly turn into objectives. The use of the term Detailed Objectives avoids using the term Responsibility – a word which has a variety of different meanings to different people.

Detailed Objectives include Authorities

21 Most Position Descriptions include a Section called “Authorities. Yet authority (as defined in these notes)* involves the right to make decisions and use the organisation’s resources – as described in paragraph 16 above.

22 Readers will find it quite simple to turn stated authorities into objectives. Mostly the authorities already exist in the form of an objective.

      23 Example. The authority to buy goods up to $1,000 becomes the objective; Buys Goods up to $1,000. The authority to hire and fire becomes; Hire Personnel (up to limit authorised in budget). Terminate employment of all Personnel in the Position Holder’s Section, where appropriate.

Relationships

24 All positions involve relationships between people. This important aspect of any position deserves separate treatment.

25    Position Description should always include:

     (a) Immediate Managers— the person or persons to whom the Position Holder direct reports and the people from whom he/she receives (official) instructions.

     (b) Immediate Subordinate- the people who the Organisation wants the Position Holder to give (official) instructions.

     (c) Others- any other people who hold positions whose objectives and activities assist, or limit, the Position Holder’s ability to achieve the Position Objectives.

* These notes define Authority as: The relationship existing between two or more people such that one or more people will try to do what another person wishes them to do.

Basis of Assessment

26 Some Organisations have Position Descriptions which do not include a section covering the standards used to evaluate the performance of the Position Holder (Basis of Assessment).

27 Since all objectives provide standards, some people would agree that the broad and detailed objectives provide sufficient and adequate standards.

28 However some objectives do not include a numerical factor and therefore provide a less-specific standard.

     29 Examples. Compare: “Sell the Company’s Goods” with “Sell $18,000 of the Company’s Goods to Customers in Territory 15”. Compare “Purchase Goods so they arrive by the’ date required” with achieve a situation where 95% of all deliveries of goods ordered by his/her section arrive on, or before, the due date”. (Note: The first example does not include any time objective.)

30 Further, the Basis of Assessment Section will usually highlight the key objectives of a position. Thus it identifies the Position’s Objectives which will make a major contribution to the Organisation if achieved.

31 This section would help the Manager of the Position Holder to assess more quickly the important objectives of a Position. It should also help Position Holders to decide to which objectives they should give most attention.

Examples of Position Descriptions

32 The following sections provides an example of a Position Description for a Purchasing Officer and one for a Branch Manager.

 Example 1 – Purchasing Officer

Broad Objectives

33 Purchase goods and services, at an appropriate price, so that they “arrive” at appropriate places by the date required.

34 Assist with the preparation of cost estimates.

 Detailed Objectives

35 Purchase goods and services included in material lists assigned to the position at the best available price, provided the price falls at, or below, the limit laid down., Ensure the Organisation receives the Goods and Services at the right time and at the right place.

36 Seek quotations on goods and services.

37 Compare and summarise quotations received for goods and services.

38 Prepare Offers and Contracts.

39 Sign Orders and Contracts – of value up to the amount of the estimated price of the item.

40 Refer larger amounts to the Supply Manager.

41 Follow up and expedite delivery of goods.

42 Price materials and services – as directed.

43 Consider invoices and progress payment claims from Suppliers where the order or contract prepared and the prices of rates exceed those in the order or contract. Recommend approval of higher amounts or rates if correct.

44 Sign sales tax exemption certificates.

45 Assist the Invoice Clerks with technical queries.

46 Maintain records of prices and confidential records of Suppliers.

47 Visit Suppliers’ works and report on their potential as Supplier to the Organisation.

48 Sign routine correspondence over the title “Purchasing Officer”.

49 Maintain a complete and up-to-date manual for the position.

50 Perform any other duties assigned by the Supply Manager.

Relationships

51 Report to the Supply Manager.

52 Co-operate with other Staff on matters of mutual concern. Have close relations with Staff of Department for which he/she purchases goods and services.

53 Have extensive contacts with Suppliers prior to confirmation of commitments and during follow up to eventual delivery.

Basis of Assessment

54 Ability to purchase goods and services which arrive at the desired place, on the scheduled date.

55 Ability to buy goods of the ordered quality at an economical price.

56 Appropriate maintenance of records of prices, Suppliers, progress- payment claims, and the approval of invoices.

57 Success in obtaining new supply sources to the Company’s advantage.

Example 2 – Branch Manager

Broad Objective

58 Market effectively and efficiently the Company’s products and services to selected markets within the Branch Territory.

59 Achieve or exceed budgeted profit.

Detailed Objectives

Specific Objectives

60 Prepare specific objectives for the coming six months (the first or second half of the budget year) for (a) the Branch (b) the position itself.

61 Communicate these objectives to the immediate Manager before the commencement of the period of the objectives.

Budgets

62 Prepare budgets for own Branch for both sales and expenses.

63 Recommend items of capital expenditure of annual budget.

Capital Expenditure

64 Approve purchase of capital items up to $1,000 in value where the item did not appear in the approved annual capital expenditure for the Branch AND the cumulative amount of excess capital budget expenditure does not exceed $5,000 in total for any one yearly accounting period.

65 Recommend purchases of capital items not already included in annual branch capital-expenditure budget and for which the Position Holder has not got the position authority to approve. (Refer to previous objective).

Levels of Stock and Service Capacity

66 Ensure the maintenance of a level of stocks of products and parts and service personnel which will provide the level of Customer service decided by Head Office for the Branch.

Information about Markets and Marketing

67 Approve any surveys (information gathering on a systematic basis) for existing and/or new markets and/or products* which Branch Sales Representatives and/or Branch Service Personnel carry out.**

68 Notify Marketing Services Manager and/or Australian Service Manager (as  appropriate to the content of the information gathering) of any activity of the type mentioned in the previous objective.**

69 Recommend desirable research of existing and/or potential markets within the Branch and/or products and/or marketing activities of the Branch.

 * Such surveys could include reactions to new products, complaints, and ideas for new products.

** These two objectives - Nos. 67 and 68 - mean that no-one can force the use of the Representatives for information gathering without the permission of Branch Manager or a Line Manager of the Branch Manager. However a Branch Manager who starts such actions must inform the appropriate Managers.

Marketing Segments

70 Recommend market segments to which the Branch should aim to market — for each specific product or product group.

Personal Selling

71 Encourage staff to achieve or better sales targets, at a cost less than budgeted.

72 Ensure that the staff report technical problems (found during selling) to the Marketing Services Manager and/or Australian Service Manager.

73 Recommend appropriate policies on personal selling and service activities to (respectively) the Marketing Services Manager and Australian Service Manager.

74 Approve Customer Nights, Plant Tours, and similar where expenditure will exceed $X on any one night, tour, etc.

75 Ensure Branch Sales Manager(s) review the adequacy of sales territories to achieve the Branch Marketing Objectives.

76 Approve any alteration to sales territories.

77 Approve all gifts to Branch Customers and/or Prospects.

Customer Complaints

78 Deal personally with Customer complaints where the amount involved exceeds $1,000 or the Branch Sales Manager or Branch Service Manager rates the Customer as a major one for the Branch.

Co-operation between Personnel from Various Departments

79 Encourage and arrange for a high level of: (a) co-operation between and (b) co-ordination between the activities of Branch Personnel from (a) Service, (b) Sales, (c) Office.

 Agents

80 Recommend appointment of any Sales Agents which operate within the Branch Territory.

 Exhibitions

81 Approve participation in exhibitions which occur within the Branch Territory.

Advertising and Publicity

82 Recommend advertising objectives for the Branch to Advertising Manager.

Pricing

84 Approve tenders for any value that exceeds $X but does not exceed $Y.

85 Recommend approval of tenders exceeding $Y to General Manager.

New Products

86 Recommend (a) possibilities for, and (b) investigation and development of, new products to Marketing Services Manager and/or General Manager.

87 Recommend changes in sales promotion material and/or selling methods occasioned by the marketing of new products.

88 Assist in the launching of any new products within the Branch territory.

Credit

89 Approve the granting of credit where the amount granted means the Customer will owe the Branch no more than $3,000 once the next delivery received (and assuming the Customer does not pay anything off the existing account, where one exists).

Distribution

90 Assess the adequacy of existing channels of distribution to achieve marketing objectives.

91 Recommend changes to channels of distribution.

93 Approve any major changes in methods of delivering goods to Customers.

Personnel

93 Foster good relationships, and a favourable image, with (a) the Public and (b) Company Employees.

94 Recommend number and type of personnel to achieve Branch Objectives.

95 Encourage and/or use selection techniques where specified by Head Office or Regional Office.

96 Recommend alterations to Company selection techniques.

97 Assist in selection of Branch Personnel where Manager believes desirable.

98 Approve the selection of all Branch personnel; but may delegate this position objective to one or more immediate Subordinates, if the Appointee will fill a Branch position where he/she will not have charge of any Branch Personnel.

99 Approve the promotion of any personnel (from within or without the Branch) to a position within the Branch.

100 Approve the transfer of Representatives between Sales Territories.

101 Approve remuneration of all Branch Personnel (other than own remuneration) provided the approved remuneration falls within laid—down remuneration ranges for the specified position.

102 Recommend remuneration for any Branch Personnel where it falls outside the laid-down remuneration range for the specified position.

103 Approve allocation of any company-owned vehicles.

104 Approve requests for use of company-owned vehicles outside Branch Territory.

105 Approve type of vehicle used by Sales and Service personnel where staff use their own vehicle on Company business.

106 Recommend organisation structure(s) for the Branch.

107 Recommend changes in own Position Description.

108 Approve changes in Position Descriptions of any Branch position (other than own) provided such change does not alter the Branch organisation structure.

109 Approve changes in the employment conditions of any Branch position (other than own provided such changes do not disagree with, or tend to oppose or negate, any conditions laid down by the Regional and/or Head Office.

110 Recommend  time to take own Annual Leave.

111 Recommend  payment of own expenses.

112 Approve  expense payments for all immediate Subordinates.

113 Dismiss any Branch Personnel in cases of serious misconduct and where delay undesirable – but must report such action and the reason for the decision to his/her immediate Manager.

114 Approve the dismissal of all Branch Personnel who do not report directly to this position.

Training

115 Seek to keep up to date with information related to the objectives of own position.

116 Keep informed on the objectives of his/her immediate Manager and the activities of other aspects of the organisation which will help achieve the objective of own position.

117 Ensure Branch personnel receive training appropriate to their own position and for other positions where an appropriate person(s) has identified the personnel concerned as having potential for further promotion.

Communication of Relevant Information

118 Communicate information, and encourage other to communicate information, which should help improve the productivity of the Organisation: (a) “downwards” to personnel under own control, (b) “upwards” to higher-level Managers, and (c) “sideways” to other relevant personnel.

Personnel Evaluation

119 Evaluate the performance of all immediate Subordinates in relation to their position objectives and standards of performance.

Unions

120 Carry out, or supervise closely, all negotiations with Unions.

121 Recommend any agreements with any Union.

 

Accounting

122 Maintain the accounting system as specified by Head Office.

123 Ensure preparation of all accounting reports and records – as decided by Branch and/or Head Office.

124 Encourage use of accounting procedures and policies decided by Branch and/or Head Office.

125 Sign all cheques issued by the Branch where he/she believes the Branch should issue the cheque to the Drawee for that amount. (The position Holder cannot delegate this objective to anyone else without the written permission of his/her immediate Manager.)

Contracts

126 Recommend preparation of legal contracts as required.

127 Recommend signing of appropriate legal contracts.

Assets

128 Ensure protection of all Branch Assets.

129 Arrange for security of all Branch Assets.

130 Recommend insurance cover for all Branch Assets.

Outside Consulting Service

131 Approve any expenditure on consulting services not allowed for in the Branch Budget provided such expenditure will not make the total of such expenditure, in the current budget year, exceed $5,000

132 Recommend any expenditure on consulting services which falls outside the budget and the limit established in the previous objective.

Relationships

133 Report directly to the General Manager.

134 Manage directly: Branch Sales Manager, Branch Service Manager, Branch Office Manager.

135 Receive assistance from) if desired and/or where designated by the General Manager, the following Head Office Personnel: Australian Service Manager, Marketing Services Manager, Finance Manager, Personnel Manager, Information Systems Manager.

136 Communicate directly with Major Customers and Prospects.

Basis of Assessment

137 Achievement of the Branch profitability budgets without sacrificing reasonable chances of achieving a similar (or better) return on capital employed in the following few years.

138 Development of staff to greater productivity.

140 Development of staff with potential to perform well in higher-level positions – not necessarily only within the Branch.

Exercise – Memory and the Documents

Exercise

The Problem

1 Stan approaches Beth (his Boss) and says that he does not quite know what to do. He cannot discover whether anyone has sent a copy of a set of documents to the New Zealand office or not. Stan knows that he had an instruction to send this material and something he read reminded him of it today, but he cannot remember if he sent it off.

2 Beth believes in Completed Staff Work so she now asks Stan what he recommends. Stan feels rather at a loss.

3 Beth asks Stan to state the critical factors involved in the situation and again Stan feels rather at a loss to distinguish the important factors for him in trying to make his recommendation.

Background Information

4 Nothing in the local office will indicate whether anyone has sent the documents and no-one can remember whether anyone has sent them. The original of the documents involved still remains in the local office. Stan had to mail the documents to New Zealand; they did not have to go through Beth.

5 The Company has a copying machine but no facsimile machine. Mail between the two offices takes about 1-2 days by air. The documents concerned contain about 10-12 pages of closely-typed information.

6 The documents rate as confidential and would go to the Manager of the New Zealand Branch. Only he should know of their existence. The documents have immediate use to the New Zealand Branch and their use will last during this month and next month.

7 The New Zealand Manager believes in visiting his staff at his various local offices. Usually the Manager spends about three days out of every four away from the office.

8 He does not have a Private Secretary – he uses a tape recorder for his dictation and two or three different typists in the typing Department type the dictation depending on availability.

 

Questions

9 What would you recommend if you found yourself in Stan’s position?

10 List two important questions you should ask yourself to help you decide what to do?

11 Draw a Decision Tree to show the possible actions and their consequences (plus probabilities) in the above situation.

 

Exercise – Discussion of Setting Objectives in your Position.

Exercise

Syndicate Discussion on Individual Exercise

Objective

1 Discuss the experiences of each Syndicate Member in carrying out the Exercise: Setting Objectives in Your Position. This discussion should contribute to the objective of the total exercise: Improve the ability of Course Members to set objectives for their current position.

 

Procedure in the Syndicate
2 Each Syndicate Member should have a copy of the material prepared by each of the other Syndicate Members for this exercise.

3 Study each Member’s material and note anything that you rate as –

(a)   an idea you should use in your own material

(b)  items you would like to question and/or discuss as to their meaning and/or relevance

(c)   apparent or real conflict in items between the objectives of the Member and the Member’s Immediate Manager

(d)  unclear or non-specific objectives

(e)   showing conflict between objectives and the Position Description

(f) other matters you wish to raise for discussion.

4 Discuss topics arising from the above items.

5 Discuss any difficulties you had in obtaining information regarding this Exercise from your Manager. What did this experience teach you about (a) Managing, (b) Understanding and Influencing People, (c) Working more effectively for your Manager, (d) Anything else you regard as relevant?

6 Did discussions with your Manager lead to any changes to the Position Description and/or the objectives of (a) your Manager, (b) your own material? Which? What benefits, if any, came out of the changes?

 7 Did a comparison between the objectives and the relevant Position Description for (a) your Immediate Manager (b) yourself lead to any changes. Which? What benefits, if any, came out of the changes?

8 List any points which one or more Syndicate Members learnt from the individual preparation and syndicate discussion parts of this Exercise.

9 List any objectives which one or more Syndicate Members intend to adopt as a result of the Exercise so far.

10 List the points and the objectives on a sheet of paper in a manner suitable for displaying to other Syndicates at a Group Discussion of this topic in a following session.

Group Discussion

11 After reading the Syndicate Reports, Members will exchange views on the ideas presented.

12 At the end of the discussion Course Members should have their own individual objectives which they intend to adopt — as a result of their experiences during the Exercise.

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Exercise

Discussion of – Setting objectives in your position

Syndicate Discussion on Individual Exercise

Objective
1 Discuss the experiences of each Syndicate Member in carrying out the Exercise: Setting Objectives in Your Position. This discussion should contribute to the objective of the total exercise: Improve the ability of Course Members to set objectives for their current position.

 

Procedure in the Syndicate

2 Each Syndicate Member should have a copy of the material prepared by each of the other Syndicate Members for this exercise.

3 Study each Member’s material and note anything that you rate as –

(a)   an idea you should use in your own material

(b)  items you would like to question and/or discuss as to their meaning and/or relevance

(c)   apparent or real conflict in items between the objectives of the Member and the Member’s Immediate Manager

(d)  unclear or non-specific objectives

(e)   showing conflict between objectives and the Position Description

(f) other matters you wish to raise for discussion.

4 Discuss topics arising from the above items.

5 Discuss any difficulties you had in obtaining information regarding this Exercise from your Manager. What did this experience teach you about (a) Managing, (b) Understanding and Influencing People, (c) Working more effectively for your Manager, (d) Anything else you regard as relevant?

6 Did discussions with your Manager lead to any changes to the Position Description and/or the objectives of (a) your Manager, (b) your own material? Which? What benefits, if any, came out of the changes?

7 Did a comparison between the objectives and the relevant Position Description for (a) your Immediate Manager (b) yourself lead to any changes. Which? What benefits, if any, came out of the changes?

8 List any points which one or more Syndicate Members learnt from the individual preparation and syndicate discussion parts of this Exercise.

9 List any objectives which one or more Syndicate Members intend to adopt as a result of the Exercise so far.

10 List the points and the objectives on a sheet of paper in a manner suitable for displaying to other Syndicates at a Group Discussion of this topic in a following session.

Group Discussion
11 After reading the Syndicate Reports, Members will exchange views on the ideas presented.

12 At the end of the discussion Course Members should have their own individual objectives which they intend to adopt — as a result of their experiences during the Exercise.

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