Marketing – Contents

The Scope of Marketing

Introduction to Marketing and the Marketing Concept (7)

Don’t Sell Your Goods – Market Them. (6)

Some Approaches to Marketing Planning

Components of a Marketing Plan (2)

Basic Marketing Decisions for any Organisation (1)

Some Basic Objectives Related to the Wise Selection of Markets for a Company’s Products and Effective Marketing to these Markets (7)

Evaluating Marketing Activities

Rules of Thumb as Standards for Evaluating Marketing Activities (2)

Additional Activities to Include in a Marketing Audit (1)

Some Points about Improving Productivity in Marketing Activities (5)

Some Specific Marketing Techniques

Questionnaire – Provide Better Service to your Customers (3)

Marketing to the Government and Similar Organisations Some Possible Topics for Discussion (1)

Profit Through Partnership: Marketing Better Through the Staff of Distributors (3)

Marketing to the Factory Floor (1)

[1] The number in the brackets indicates the number of pages in the notes.

Does Your Company waste Money in the way it quotes? (2)

Market Segmentation (4)

Product  Profile Charts (2)

Marketing Research

Investigating Your Markets – Present and Potential (5)

Starting to Establish the Market Potential for a Product (3)

Evaluating Market Research Proposals and Reports (5)

Choosing Market Research Techniques (16)

Saving Money in Market Research (1)

Marketers should use Market Research Group Interviews but recognise their Limitations (2)

Sales Management [2]

The Evaluation of a Sales Manager’s Performance (8)

A Salesmanship Training Course to Attract Suitable Sales Representative Applicants (4)

[2] The  Categories  – Safes Management Parts 1 and 2 provide much more information on the topic of Sales Management.

Introduction to Marketing and the Marketing Concept A


1 These notes introduce the topics of Marketing and the Marketing Concept. They suggest a distinction between them on the basis of (a) a grouping of activities and (b) an attitude of mind. In addition they identify the areas covered by marketing activities and define “Marketing Mix”.

A Meaning For Marketing

2 While many business people have heard of the terms “Marketing” and “the Marketing Concept”, too few can define their meaning. Since they describe some important ideas, people should understand their meaning and their implications.

3 Before attempting to define them, Readers should realise that no universally-accepted definitions of most management terms exist. However the definitions in these notes provide one useful approach.

4 Marketing: the activity which

(a) considers the needs of people

(b) tries to develop goods and/or services to satisfy these needs (up to the point where routine manufacturing processes begin) and

(c) aims to: (i) direct the flow of these goods and/or services (after their manufacture) until the ultimate consumer uses them, and (ii) receive a payment for the goods (services) which will increase the organisation’s overall profitability. [1]

5 A number of points in the above definition deserve discussion.

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Don’t sell your Goods – Market Them

1 Most Managers accept the importance of Marketing as an activity of business. Many realise it does not provide another word for Selling. However many have difficulty explaining the difference between the two terms. Some Executives accept that Selling rates as one part of the activities of Marketing. They realise that, in trying to satisfy the needs of Consumers, they have many more ways than just Selling. Most people would accept that Selling describes the activity of asking a person (a Sales Representative) to seek out Prospects and talk to them in a way which will find out their needs and persuade the Prospects that the Sales Representatives’ particular product can satisfy these needs.

2 Managers should realise that impersonal methods of Selling (e.g. Advertising, Point-of-Sale Material, and Packaging) can also play an important part in gaining sales.   Further, Managers should give attention to Market Research since probably it will give them a better chance of Developing Successful New Products and Improving Old Ones. They should also consider the Warehousing of their Products, the Channels of Distribution, Physical Methods of Distribution, and the Pricing of Products. The above activities describe those which many people would include as part of “Marketing”.

3 These notes aim to encourage people to look at the task of satisfying consumer demand from a broader perspective than the activity of Selling. Managers should realise that a number of activities exist which they can use as well as Selling. In summary they should “market” not just sell.

4 This point does not imply that Selling rates as unimportant. However it should take its place with the other techniques available to Managers. In some cases over emphasis on personal selling activities can make a Company perform worse than its Competitors. The following examples aim to illustrate some of the activities that Managers can, and should, consider over and above just the selling of their goods.

A Marketing Plan for Manufacturers

5 Manufacturers who sell (eventually) through a retail store depend greatly on the retail staff. The old phrase: “The most important three feet in the world” stresses the importance of the distance across retail counters. Most Manufacturers realise that they should do more than just sell their goods to Retailers.  Manufacturers who market their goods watch carefully the success of the retail outlets to whom they sell. Continue reading

Components of a Marketing Plan


1 A group of Senior Managers discussed the approach to making a Marketing Audit of an Organisation.

2 Their discussion soon identified a central issue as the Organisation’s Marketing Plan.

3 However some arguments occurred as to the components in a Marketing Plan.

4 Discussion suggested at least two approaches:

(a) A breakdown of Marketing into various smaller activities.

(b) An evaluation of the ways Managers went about Marketing.

5 In effect the discussion concluded that “the ways” (in sub paragraph (b) above) would relate to each of the various Marketing sub-activities. Continue reading

Some Basic Objectives related to the Wise Selection of Markets for a Company’s Products and Effective Marketing to these Markets


1 These notes explain meanings for the following important marketing terms:

(a) Potential Target Market,

(b) Target Market, and

(c) Untargetted Market (either Deliberate or Non-Deliberate)

2 To some Readers these terms may sound complicated and appear like hair splitting. However the terms and the difference between them have some important implications for Executives who wish to market well. The two examples below (commencing paragraph 6) show this point.

Some Basic Objectives

3 Companies should investigate how well they market; but, in doing so, Executives sometimes do not investigate how well they achieve the fol­lowing two major marketing objectives:

(a) Decide to whom the Company (or Branch) should try to market which of its products.

(b) Decide to whom the Company should not try to market which of its products.

4 Executives should realise that their Company makes decisions about how to achieve (or not achieve) these objectives by the way their Staff act. Sometimes Executives do not realise the effect that the actions of their staff have on the above objectives.

5 The following two examples highlight some points related to the above objectives. Marketing Executives should consider whether their Companies have similar examples.

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Rules of Thumb as Standards for evaluating Marketing Activities


1 A group of Managers decided to exchange some ideas on “rules-of­thumb” standards for use in evaluating the marketing performance of Or­ganisations.

2 Members listed ideas they used to “keep watch” on their operations.

3 The following section lists the items – in no particular order.

4 However the list really identifies the factors different Managers look at. They do not identify a point or band on the factor scale which identifies an acceptable performance.


5 Number of Invoices produced per day.

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Additional Activities to include in a Marketing Audit

1 Find Company Objectives (if any in writing).

(a) Deduce/Find Marketing Objectives.

(b) Evaluate wisdom of objectives.

2 Establish the resources available to the Marketing Department (for individual parts of Marketing activities).

3 Evaluate whether resources (e.g. manpower) will prove -

(a) sufficient to achieve objectives and

(b) adequately organised/balanced – for each individual Marketing activity.

4 Seek documents which will establish the Organisation’s

(a) Five-Year Plan

(b) One-Year Plan

(c) Marketing Plan

(d) Budget

(e) Organisation Structure.

5 Identify limiting factors.

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Some Points about improving Productivity in Marketing Activties


1 The following points arise from a discussion between a group of Sen­ior Managers, not all of whom have worked, or do work, in a marketing section of an Organisation.

2 These notes aim to provide thought starters for Readers and not an exhaustive treatment of the subject matter.

3 For ease of reference the notes group the ideas under various dif­ferent marketing activities.

Some Questions to use to help find Opportunities for improving Produc­tivity In Marketing

4 The following questions may help to stimulate thinking about im­provements.

5 How can we avoid mistakes in the future?

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Questionnaire – Provide Better Service to your Customers


1 The following questions aim to help those who try to answer them to improve certain aspects of the marketing activities which their Organi­sation aims to carry out.

2 Some questions imply that a group of people (a Syndicate) have the job of answering the questions.

3 In the case of a group, probably it will prove better for each indi­vidual to answer the questions independently and then compare their an­swers and discuss why differences exist. Then the group can try to es­tablish whether real differences exist and, if so, what implications the differences have for achieving better marketing by their Organisa­tion.


Your Customers and your Products/Services

4 Who do you rate as your Customers?

5 What do you aim to supply (sell) to them?

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