Role-Playing Exercise – The Concerned Supervisor

1 You supervise a Section consisting of eight staff. You find it an easy Section to run as everyone gets on well and helps each other out.

2 One of your Clerks always helps others in the Section and people see him/her as a happy talkative person who loves having a joke.

3 This morning the Clerk came in late (most unusual) and has not said a word to anyone since coming in. He/She has just sat at a desk and stared out into the distance. The phone has rung and rung and others have had to answer it.

4 A couple of workmates have tried to talk with …………………… but have received almost no answer. The normally happy Clerk does not seem to hear them.

5 You wonder if something unusual has occurred and so you ask……………………..     to come into your office.

6 You aim to get your Clerk back to operating effectively again.

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Role-Playing Exercise – Statistical Errors – Male

A Male Staff Member

1 You have worked in a Clerk Class 7 job for some time. You recently applied for the Class 8 position which heads up the sub-section in which you work. However you lost out to a woman who has now become your Immedi­ate Supervisor.

2 You feel unhappy about the selection decision. Further, you do not like working for a woman. However, you did not appeal against the decision.

3 The sub-section has to produce staffing statistics for departmental use. Among other things your job involves producing monthly statistical sum­maries of the staffing situation. You obtain your data from Personnel.

4 Personnel have organised their work so they can give you data at the end of each month but often you receive the data after the cut-off time. Further, you always have problems getting information from them at other times of the month. Regular staff changes in Personnel increase the diffi­culties. You have to explain to each new person in the job what you need and to define the sorts of data that fall under each category.

5 Recently, your Supervisor asked you to prepare a response to a parlia­mentary question concerning the number of officers on various types of leave, excluding recreation leave. You had never had to prepare a response to a parliamentary question before. Further, you had a lot to do to finish another project on time.

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How much Time should Organisations spend on finding Training Needs


1 People have different views on how much an Organisation should spend on find their Training Needs. Different Organisations take different actions on this matter.

2 The different assumptions which people hold explain some of this varia­tion.

3 These notes list some important assumptions. They aim to encourage Readers to examine these assumptions, identify their own, and estimate the degree to which evidence supports the different assumptions. This process should help Readers decide how much their Organisation should spend on finding Training Needs.

4 Readers should note that these notes refer only to Training Needs related to Managing. They do not refer to Training Needs related to tech­nical knowledge of the processes and products of a particular Organisation.

Assumptions About Managers

5 Few Managers have much useful information to offer when asked to state some specific training needs of their Subordinates.

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Training and Developing People – Part 2 – Contents


How to use the Notes (3)*


Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Training (16)

Evaluation of Training (3)

Course Evaluation Form (General and Brief Evaluation Form for Any Course) (2)

Course Members Evaluation. A Detailed Evaluation Form (9)

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How to use these Notes

1 These notes explain some of the characteristics of the material in these posts so that Users can gain more value from the material.


2 Many of the larger notes have a summary. These occur at the end of the notes and usually start on a new page.

3 Some people like to read the summary first. However if you find the summary unclear, please go back to the original material before rating the material as unclear.

4 Some people have made up collections of Summaries.

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Training

A Meaning for Evaluation

1 These notes defines evaluation as - the measurement of something and a comparison of the result of the measurement with a standard.

2 Appendix A explains some of the significant words of this definition.

Four Inevitable Activities of Evaluating

3 The following identifies four activities which must occur wherever evaluation takes place.

(a) Decide on a factor (or factors) to evaluate something. The stage of choosing a factor equals choosing a (measurement) scale since the concept of a factor implies some measurement. The factor exists or it does not exist (an example of a classification scale).*

(b) Identify a standard – on the scale chosen. Sometimes the Evalua­tor will select a point, sometimes a band. Sometimes someone else will have already chosen a standard and will expect the Evaluator to use that standard.

(c) Measure performance. Measuring performance involves some tricky problems. (The  notes “Introduction to Measurement” discusses some of the problems involved.)

(d) Compare performance with standard. This activity involves draw­ing a conclusion – once someone relates the performance on the scale with the standard on the same scale.

Errors can occur in any One of the Inevitable Activities

4 The four inevitable activities occur in any evaluation. Many people do not realise that they exist. Although it seems quite obvious when someone points them out, often people do not analyse the evaluation process system­atically.

5 Something can go wrong with any one of the activities listed and then, a wrong evaluation can occur.

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Evaluation of Training

Training Evaluation – Complex And With Many Approaches

1 The evaluation of training rates as a complex topic. Executives can take many approaches to this area from (a) doing nothing to (b) taking a very comprehensive approach to trying to find out what benefits (if any) Course Members and/or the Organisation received from their training.

Evaluate: The Course And/Or Actions Following The Course

2 Two broad aspects of evaluation exist. An Organisation can (a) try to evaluate the Training Course itself and/or (b) try to find out what Course Members do in their Organisation after attending the Training Course and (probably) because of the course.

Collect Information From: People At The Course And/Or People On The Job

3 Evaluators can try to obtain information about a Training Course from anyone who has observed it. A common approach involves asking Course Members their reactions to various aspects of the Course.

4 To collect the actions that people take (if any) as a result of the Course, Evaluators can seek information from the Course Members and/or people who have contact with the Course Members in the Organisation – their Managers, Colleagues, and/or Subordinates.

5 An evaluation should obtain some feedback from Course Members, partly to obtain different viewpoints about the Course and partly to allow the Course Members to express their feelings about the Course.

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Course Members Evaluation

1 The opinions of Course Members provide one piece of evidence which helps to evaluate a course. The material in this booklet aims to help you record your opinions about the course and its various aspects as you do it. Please fill it in regularly – at least at the end of each half day – pref­erably more often.

2 Each page covers a number of course sessions. Please tick the appropri­ate box to indicate your views. You should attempt to divorce each aspect from other aspects e.g. you may rate the topic as not worthwhile but the notes good – or vice versa. Or you may rate the topic as worthwhile – but poorly presented.

3 Where you suggest deleting a topic please indicate why and whether you believe a later course should cover it.

4 If you give a “poor” or “fair” rating to course notes, it would help if you listed some specific points to help increase the “goodness” of the notes.

5 This information will remain confidential to you and the person who collates the answers. The Collater will prepare a report to Management and the Trainers. This report will disclose opinions in a group without disclosing who said what.

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Conference Arrangements – Evaluation of Attitudinal Training Objectives

The Need For Attitude Objectives And Measurement

1 Any Training Course can aim to (a) change the existing knowledge/skills of the Course Members and/or (b) strengthen/alter their particular atti­tudes.

2 Thus (probably) any Training Course should include some objectives which involve the attitudes the Course Organisers would like Course Members to hold by the end of the training.

3 Examples. At the close of the Course, Members will believe they should: (a) give more time to training Sales Representatives (b) accept that no-one can force people to accept responsibility (c) believe that the hierarchical methods of planning will improve their ability to plan better.

4 Course Organisers should attempt to measure the success/failure of a Course to achieve it attitude objective. They could measure the Course Members’ attitudes at the beginning of the Course and measure the same attitudes at the end of the Course.

5 However any Training should aim to have its Trainees take particular actions after the Course ends. If a person has appropriate knowledge and the appropriate attitude at the end of a Course it will increase the like­lihood that the Member will take these desired actions.

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Results of Attitude Questionnaire

A General Introduction to Results of an Attitude Survey

1 The attached pages show the results of the Attitude Questionnaire.

2 The Questionnaire consisted of a series of statements. To answer the questionnaire, Course Members put an “X” on a line to indicate their agree‑ment/disagreement to each statement.  A measuring key divides this line into eleven sections from “1″ to “11″. Thus each person’s answers can receive a score.

3 In reading the results the following applies: 1 = Agree; 3 = Tend to Agree; 6 – Unsure; 9 = Tend to Disagree; 11 = Disagree. Other numbers indicate in-between positions, not covered by a word description.

4 In the first column of the attached table it shows the relevant State­ment or Question Number followed by “Start”, “End”, “Diff” rows for each Question.

5 The “Start” row shows the point marked at the start of the Course for the particular statement. The “End” row shows the point marked at the close of the Course. “Diff” stands for difference and shows the difference (if any) between the points marked between starting and finishing the Course.

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