Exercise – Job Instruction


1 Without practice at Job Instruction, Course Members will have little chance of using really effective methods of instructing people on the job.


2 This J exercise aims to ensure that Course Members will:

(a) experience the problems of, and opportunities, in training others;

(b) learn the advantages of detailed preparation for training; and

(c) gain the chance to try out the ideas in the Notes and later discussion on these notes.

Actual Exercise

3 Select a job which will take approximately fifteen minutes instruction time.

4 Select this job from your own work situation.

5 Select a job on which you would normally expect to give others instructions.

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Exercise – Delegating Better


1 Identify some specific errors in

2 Devise methods for reducing or eliminating the errors in the future – which Syndicate Members believe have a reasonable chance of achieving at least (a) a reduction in the number of times the error occurs and/or (b) a reduction in the effect of the error when it does occur.


3 List specific details of examples of errors in delegating which any Syndicate Member can recall.

4 Keep listing examples until the list contains at least one from each Syndicate Member and about six examples in all. However try to achieve the listing in 10-15 minutes or less.

5 These delegation errors should come from (a) actual experience - whether as Delegator or Delegatee and/or (b) reported incidents and/or observations.

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Handling of Dissatisfactions, Complaints, and Grievances


1 These notes discuss some of the important aspects of the handling of Dissatisfactions, Complaints, and Grievances. They describe various degrees of discontent. These notes discuss the relationship between them and suggest ideas which Managers can use in trying to handle them.


2 Dissatisfaction describes any situation which causes a person to feel discontented whether or not the person expresses their discontent in words.

3 Complaint describes a spoken or written dissatisfaction, which a Complainer brings to the attention of some other person (e g. a Manager, a Union Officer)

4 Grievance describes a complaint which (in the opinion of the Complainer) appropriate people have ignored, overridden or dismissed without giving it sufficient consideration. A Grievance always carries a sense of injustice in the mind of the person having a grievance.

5 In the area of discontent, Managers should emphasise prevention. When Complainers believe that the people involved do little or nothing to try to reduce their discontent, Dissatisfactions often become Complaints and Complaints often become Grievances.

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Exercise – Good and Bad Reasons for not Delegating


1. Find various reasons why people do not delegate. Evaluate the probability that each reason will lead to wiser managing.

Exercise Tasks

2 Write down all the reasons you believe you have for not work/objectives to others. If you have no-one to whom you can delegate work, please imagine you have and think what reasons you would have.

3 Avoid, at this stage, wondering whether any of your reasons rate as justified or not.

4 Write down the reasons you believe any of your past Managers had for not delegating something. Add any reasons you think any of them had, which they probably would not admit to themselves and/or yourself.

5 Collate all the reasons given above into one list.

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1 These notes identify the following two meanings for the word discipline: (a) a quality related to the amount of orderly behaviour observable in a person or a group and (b) a corrective measure which someone uses to try to achieve a change in behaviour of one or more people (e.g. increase the orderliness of the behaviour of a group)

2 The notes discuss the value of discipline (orderly behaviour) and its relation to the quality of the direction from Managers – including any direction which uses corrective or punitive action. The notes stress the importance of training as a factor in good discipline (orderly behaviour) and explain some of the symptoms of poor discipline non-orderly or even disorderly behaviour)

Two Meanings for – Discipline

3 Discipline has at least two meanings. The first meaning describes a quality which can exist in a person or a group of people.

4 Example People often describe a football team as “well disciplined”. It suggests a team which plays well together and has common objectives. Individual Members will give up some of their own objectives because they believe their actions will spoil the chance of achieving the team’s objectives.

5. The example illustrates the subject matter of the quality – orderly behaviour. The degree of orderliness of behaviour, good or bad, describes a condition which every organisation has – and at every level.

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How to avoid the Dangers of Bypassing


1 Many people use bypassing. Some do it deliberately, some do it by chance – without realising the effect it has on others and the stresses it causes to an organisation structure.

2 These notes offer a meaning for the term. They discuss some reasons why people bypass and the dangers which often arise from its practice. They also suggest some policies which Managers should use to avoid the dangers of bypassing.

3 They also discuss Institutionalism Bypassing and Unofficial Bypassing.

An Explanation of Bypassing

4 This section aims to describe and explain Bypassing without defining it tightly. A later section definesBypassing.

Diagram showing Bypassing Communications

5 In the diagram below, the dashed lines show who can give orders to whom (i.e. the person at the higher level has the position authority to give orders to the people as lower levels). The full lines provide examples of bypassing.

Downward and Upward Bypassing

6 Where a person (X) communicates to a person (Y) two or more levels below Person X, downward-bypassing occurs. Where the communication senders communicate with people two or more levels above their position, upward-bypassing occurs.

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Problems of Passive Resistance

A Meaning For Passive Resistance

Passive Resistance describes any activity by a subordinate (or staff person) which aims to resist achieving an objective a manager (supervisor) wants the person to achieve - without telling the manager that they do not intend to try to achieve the objective.

2 Probably everyone has used passive resistance on some occasions with respect to an immediate or higher-level Manager.ow Passive Resistance works

3 In passive resistance, Subordinates understand what their Manager wants done but they do not tell the Manager of their disagreement and their intention to not try to achieve the objective.

4 Subordinates who use slightly-less-passive resistance would warn the Manager that they do not really favour the objective. They would say that they will do their best to carry it out. However, they know that they will not really put much effort into it.

5 However, sometimes they do not admit to themselves that they do not intend to try to achieve the objective.

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Job Instruction

All Supervisors use Job Instruction every day

1 “Job Instruction” describes the Process which any Supervisor (= manager) goes through to try to get someone to do a particular piece of work.1

2 Examples of a Piece of Work.How to get to a certain part of the factory or the office. How to fill in a particular form. How to set up a machine for running a job. How to run a conference or conduct a selection interview.

3 Job Instruction can involve any job in an Organisation.

4 Job Instruction goes on all the time in every office or factory. Every contact made by one person with another that aims to get something done fits into the class of Job Instruction. These contacts do not have to rate as formal and detailed as they may consist of only a few brief words.

5 Examples. (a) Mary delivers a package to your office and you say “Please put it down on the desk”. (b) Tom e plain to Betty how to get to the office of the Personnel Manager. “Go next door” or “Go to room 62 about 10 offices further down the corridor”.

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Managers should distinguish between Orders and Advice


1 The activity of Managing involves the activities of planning for, directing, and checking other people.

2 Managing involves trying to achieve objectives through the efforts of other people. Thus all Managers get involved in directing people i.e. trying to influence them to achieve objectives helpful to, or identical with, their own objectives.

3 In directing people a Manager can use four types of approaches: (a) orders (b) advice (c) information seeking (= a question) and (d) information giving.

4 These notes discuss only the areas of orders and advice.

A Distinction between Orders and Advice

5 When Managers give a Subordinate an order they instruct the Subordinate to do, or not do, something. Continue reading

Giving Instructions


1 All Managers (Supervisors) have to try to influence the behaviour of others. Often they have to tell other people directly what they want them to do i.e. they tell others to take some action (as compared with trying to influence their attitudes). Telling people to do something equals giving instructions.

2 Giving instructions represent a special case of ’ Job Instruction can include giving information on a wide variety of details and explaining how to do large pieces of work. Just giving an instruction can take a short time and need not say how to do a job. Principles of Job Instruction exist and apply to giving instructions.

Types of Instructions

Commands, Requests, and Advice

3 An instruction which leaves no doubt in the mind of the Receiver that they must take some action describes a command. It differs from giving information or advice.

4 People often “dress up” instructions in the form of a request. “Would you mind coming to my office” provides a common example of a request usually accepted as the instruction – Come to my office (now). However many cases exist where it proves difficult to know whether to treat a request as a command.

5 Managers who can achieve the effect of an instruction by giving a request probably have a better chance of creating a favourable attitude in their Subordinates. However the risk always exists that people will not act on a request – Receivers may not understand it as an instruction.

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