How to save Money in Selection Assignments


1 Many people complain about the high cost of using Consultants in selecting staff.

2 Many Consultants charge a fixed fee of 15% (or much more) of the first year’s remuneration. These rates put people off using Consultants – particularly small to medium-sized Companies. One Manager stated that he had spent $65,000 in the previous twelve months on Consultants’ fees for obtaining staff. He could have saved 20% or more if he had used a different approach.

Negotiate for Time-Basis Payment

3 One approach to saving money involves arranging for your Consultant/Agent* to work on a time basis. In this case, the following objectives  apply Р:

(a) Check whether you can link the fee with the time any Consultant you consider employing will spend on obtaining, assessing, and reporting on, Applicants (i.e. seek a rate-per-hour charge).

(b) Ask your Consultant – “How many hours did you spend on our last assignment.” What would you charge on a rate-per-hour basis?

4 Usually the total fee on a rate-per-hour basis of charging will amount to less than a fixed fee. However this point depends on the rate-per-hour charge.

Decide the Work you can do

5 Once you have a rate-per-hour approach You can decide what you want to do and what you want the Consultant to do. Continue reading



1 These notes discuss frustration. First they examine situations which lead to frustration and identify it as an important factor in behaviour. Next the notes discuss the symptoms of frustration and describe the differences between frustrated behaviour and purposive behaviour. Finally they suggest some methods for dealing with frustration.

A Meaning for Frustration

2 Frustration – A feeling existing when a Person (or Anmal) trying to achieve an objective rates his/her progress as unsatisfactory .

3 Frustration refers to a mental state as opposed to a physical one.* It exists in the perception and attitudes of a person to a given situation. People must have an objective in order to feel frustrated and they must perceive their progress as unsatisfactory (and this perception could include no progress). People have varying degrees of dissatisfaction with their progress; thus varying degrees of frustration exist. The strength of the desire to achieve the objective will also affect the degree of frustration felt.

Temporary Frustration

4 People can feel frustrated with varying degrees of intensity and the feeling will last for different time periods. These notes call the short period of frustration – “temporary frustration” and the longer period of frustration – “major frustration”.

5 A clear distinction between “temporary frustration” and “longer” or “major frustration” does not exist; but a short period would refer to a few seconds and-could refer to a few minutes. The feeling of frustration would only cause anyone feeling it to stop looking for other ways of achieving their objectives for the few seconds or minutes.

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How to get better Value from Employment Agents


1 Whenever Organisations seek to select an Executive, they have the option of using external Organisations to assist in the process. Some Organisations use Employment Agents. If they do so, they should try to ensure they get good value. These notes aim to assist.

A Definition of an Employment Agency

2 These notes define an Employment Agent as any person who only receives payment from a Client when the Client appoints someone to a particular position (called a placement).

3 These notes also classify the following as Employment Agents: people who work on the basis of part payment for placement and an additional payment for: (a) work done and/or (b) some payment for starting a selection assignment.

What the Payment System encourages Employment Agents to do

4 The payment system described above (payment on results):

(a) Encourages Clients to interview Applicants and appoint one or more of the Agency-suggested Candidates.

(b) Encourages Applicants to visit Client Organisations.

5 Poorer Employment Agents could:

(a) Send Applicants to positions for which Applicants have little suitability.*

(b) Send Applicants to interview for positions which have little relationship to the position Applicants desire.

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1 These notes discuss the difficulties of defining emotion. They identify important elements in this complex state: the arousal of emotions, emotional reactions (both bodily and mental), and emotional behaviour – particularly emotionally-disturbed behaviour.

2 The notes classify bodily emotions and consider the possibilities of classifying mental emotional reactions. They discuss the learning of emotional reactions and responses and consider detailed techniques for dealing with, and controlling, emotional-disturbing responses. The notes also deal with two of these techniques: self study and suppression.

Emotion – Difficult to define and Psychologists do not agree on a definition

3 Most Readers would agree to call the following emotions: joy, anger, love, fear, hope, and worry. However, in spite of the ability to think of examples of emotion, it proves a very difficult term to define and no real agreement exists among Psychologists as to its definition.

4 However most Psychologists agree that emotion involves a departure from the normal state of the person (or any organism). To understand the idea of the normal state Readers need to understand the word – homeostasis. This idea suggests that within an organism (e.g. a person) a constant normal internal state exists and a tendency exists for the maintenance of this state – particularly among internal physiological conditions.

5 Example. The body temperature tends to stay at the same level, so does blood pressure and the acid/alkaline state of the blood, and so on.

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A Personality Report which probably will describe almost everyone


1 Some people put far too much faith in Personality Tests. They want to believe that Psychologists have some crystal ball which sees all.

2 When reading reports based on the results of Personality Tests they do not read them critically. They seem to suspend their powers of judgement.

3 The following classic procedure will remind people that they need to evaluate reports more carefully.


4 Announce to a group of people (eg. Members of a Management Training Program) that you have come across a new psychological technique which assesses personality.

5 State that, in secret, you have applied the new technique to them.

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1 These notes deal with perception as a process which determines people’s reception and interpretation of information. They outline the factors which influence this process and cause people to perceive things differently or in the same way. These factors help Managers (and others) to learn how to influence and understand people’s perceptions.

A Meaning for Perception

2 Perception Рthe process by which a Person makes contact with his/her environment; i.e. the way things look, feel, sound, smell, and taste to a Person  .

3 But perception also involves an awareness and understanding of things, a “recognition” of objects which gives them some meaning.

4 Perception involves three basic processes – receptor, symbolic, and affective.

Receptor Processes

5 The stimuli people receive depend on their receptor processes, i.e. the experiences their senses receive. Under most conditions of everyday life, several receptor processes occur at the same time. (Examvle. We not only see objects but also hear them and perhaps feel them.)

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The Vroom Model of Motvation


1 This set of notes explains a theory which has gained wide acceptance among Writers and Researchers on the subject of motivation.

2 Readers should not expect to understand the theory on their first reading of this material. Motivation rates as a complex subject and (probably) no simple theory will explain satisfactorily why particular individuals act as they do.

3 Some Writers call this approach a contingency theory. It states that how an individual will act in a given situation rates as contingent on (a) what elements a person perceives in his/her environment and whether these elements provide a positive or negative outcome for the person and (b) the probability that the person’s actions will lead to particular outcomes.

Vroom’s Definition of Motivation

4 Vroom defines motivation as: a process governing choices among possible forms of voluntary activity – made by people (or lower organisms).

The Elements in Vroom’s Model of Motivation

Motivation: A Force to do – What Action – at a Particular Time

5 One approach to the use of “motivation” as an idea ties motivation to a particular action i.e. the observer (or the observed themselves) asks: motivation to do – what? Continue reading

Gellerman’s Theory of Motivation

1 Gellerman wrote an excellent book called Motivation and Productivity (American Management Association, 1963)

2 In it, he presents his theory of Motivation.

3 The following material summarises his ideas.

4 Each Person has a Self Concept – a person’s ideas (probably vague) about the type of person they rate themselves.

5 Each Person tries to behave like their self concept – but as the Person’s environment permits.

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Motivation and Productivity


1 The following notes summarise some of the ideas made by Gellerman in his book “Motivation and Productivity”

2 Employers have concentrated too much on trying to make the non-working hours of people happy. They should aim to make working hours more inviting.

3 Exanple. People get more leisure and more money to spend during leisure time. The organisation encourages social functions through special social clubs and provides money for people after they retire – superannuation.

4 Organisations tend to satisfy the material needs of their people but fail to satisfy the people’s intangible needs – particularly during working hours

Dynanics of Motives

5 Everyone has many motives; nobody has the same mixtures as somebody else. Thus no single strategy will keep morale and productivity high for everyone, everywhere.

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Motivation – Three Meanings


1 Different interpretations of the word “Motivation” exists. The next sections discuss three of them.

Motivation (A) An Internal State of a Person

2 Motivation: The general name for the fact that a person’s* own nature (or enduring structure) and/or internal state partly determines the direction and strength of his/her acts.

3 This meaning contrasts with two other determinants of action:

(a) Ability

(b) Stimulus

4 However a stimulus for a particular person often gets included in the idea of Motivation because the stimulus touches off the Motivation.

Motivation (B) a Process within a Person **

5 Motivation: a process within a person that gives energy to certain responses in a given situation. The process makes the particular responses more likely to occur than other possible responses. No-one can observe such internal processes, Psychologists (and others) infer that such a process exists by observing a person’s behaviour. Continue reading