1. Managers should arrange for and/or carry out systematic training of their personnel to improve their performance. However many managers have little experience in this area. Thus when they want to develop and conduct a training program they often make errors because they lack experience and knowledge.
2. To develop a systematic training program, managers should aim to achieve the following objectives
(a) plan formal training courses for the organisation
(b) decide the objectives such courses I aim to achieve
(c) decide who should attend such courses
(d) achieve integration between the courses and on-the-job behaviour.
3. These notes should help managers to achieve the above objectives and explain some of the difficulties involved in achieving them.
4. They do not aim to cover all aspects of this topic. Example, they do not discuss the following important objectives. Decide where to hold the course stop. Decide when to hold. Decide how to conduct. Decide who should conduct it..
A broad picture of some of the Objectives involved in a Training Program.
5. The diagram following shows in broad outline some of the objectives involved in a formal training program.
1 The following diagram shows a large number of the activities and the main features involved in a comprehensive program for managing an Organisation and developing its people – particularly in relation to Management by Objectives.
2 Readers should read the following notes in conjunction with the diagram. They will help to explain and elaborate on some of the points that the diagram shows.
The Columns of Boxes
3 Each column in the diagram shows the steps available to any Manager at different levels of an Organisation – but it shows only three levels (Company, Section, and Individual Position). It could show more levels between Company and Section (e.g. Company, Division, Department, Section). However, the same principles would apply.
4 The first columnon the left shows the activities that an Organisation’s Chief Executiveshould carry out. The other three columnsshow the activities of a Section Manager.
5 The last two columnson the right under the heading “One Position” show the activities which all Managers for all positions under their direct control should carry out. Thus an Organisation’s Chief Executive should try to achieve the objectives in column one and those in the “One Position” columns. Depending on the level of the “Position” so the objectives and sub-objectives of the position will vary.
1 Peter Drucker wrote a small book called “The Effective Executive” which contains many useful ideas. (Heinmann, 1966)
2 One chapter discusses “What can I contribute”. In it, Drucker suggests that every Organisation needs performance in three major areas: (a) direct results, (b) building of values and their re-affirmation, and (c) building and developing people for tomorrow.
3 For the third area, Drucker discusses providing the Organisation today with people who can run it tomorrow, renewing “human capital”, and steadily upgrading its human resources.
4 Drucker has many useful illustrations in his book. The following summarises one which relates to – the Development of Tomorrows Managers.
A Significant Contribution
5 A new Chief Executive had just gained his post through the unexpected death of his predecessor. He had occupied the second position in a nationwide chain of retail stores for twenty years.
6 He served contentedly under an outgoing and aggressive Chief Executive Officer several years younger. He never expected to become President. But the younger man died suddenly and the faithful Lieutenant had to take over.
7 The new Head had come through finance and enjoyed figures. He saw people largely as shadowy abstractions. But when he suddenly found himself President, he asked: “What can I and no one else do which, if done really well, would make a real difference to this Company?” He concluded that if he developed tomorrow’s Managers he would make a truly significant contribution. The Company had prided itself for many years on its executive development policies. However, the new President argued – “a policy does nothing by itself. I will aim to make sure that this policy actually gets achieved.”
8 From then on, until he retired, he walked through the Personnel Department three times a week on his way back from lunch and picked at random eight or ten folders of young people in the supervisory group. Back in his office, he opened a folder, scanned it, and phoned the person’s superior. “Mr Robertson, the President in New York calling: You have on your staff a young man, Joe Jones. Didn’t you recommend six months ago that he get a job where he could get some merchandising experience? You did. Why haven’t you done anything about it?” And down would go the receiver.
9 The next folder opened, he would call another Manager: “Mr Smith, I understand that you recommended a young woman on your staff, Dorothy Roe, for a job in which she can learn something about store accounting. I just noticed that you have followed through with this recommendation. I am pleased to see you working at the development of our young people.”
10 This man held the President’s job for only a few years and then retired. But today, twenty or so years later, current Executives attribute to him (and with considerable justice) the tremendous growth and success of the Company since his time.
Before the Training
1 Identify Training needs of people considered suitable for the Course/ Program.
2 Evaluate if Course Objectives will contribute toward the Training needs of the relevant people.
3 Evaluate the probability that the Course Organisers/Trainers/Material Location/Other Course Members/etc. will help to achieve and/or allow achievement of the Course Objectives.
After the Training
4 Evaluate what the Course did achieve of its (stated) objectives.
I wrote the notes reproduced below for the National Conference of the Australian Institute of Training and Development in 1974 as an attempt to guess at some aspects of the status of education, training and development ten years later in 1984. Readers who wish some historical perspective may find the predictions of value to their own thinking. I adopted a lighthearted and fairly pessimistic view. Did the years prove me wrong?
Australian Institute Of Training And Development
National Conference, July 1974
Education, Training, And Development, 1984 – In The Private Sector
Some Outline Points By W L Morton, Managing Director, Cullen Morton Pty Ltd
1 The following comments follow on from the Key Note Address on Education, Training and Development, 1984.
2 Make Conference Members aware of at least two ideas which will stimulate them to take action after the conference and will lead to them carrying out their training of others with a significantly higher probability of achieving the training objectives
3 Provide thought-provoking material for the syndicate discussions.
4 Convince most Conference Members that they should give more attention to the short term at this point of their development.
5 From what you know of the Speaker, please ircle one or more of the following so that you can identify your own attitude to reading what follows.